Wildflowers of the United States

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Number of Wildflowers 510
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My favorite wildflower ID book:
Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians

Genus Name

Scientific Name

Common Names

Comment

Adam and EveAplectrum hyemale*
(Native)
Puttyroot Orchid, Adam and EveThis orchid is easy to miss due to its small flowers which may blend into the background, and the fact that its leaves have withered by the time it blooms.

Connecticut: Special Concern
Massachusetts: Endangered
New Jersey: Endangered
New York: Endangered
Pennsylvania: Rare
Vermont: Threatened
Puttyroot Orchid, Adam and Eve
AgrimonyAgrimonia gryposepala*
(Native)
Tall Hairy Agrimony, Common Agrimony, Hooked Agrimony, Tall Hairy GrooveburrAgrimonia is a relatively small genus, with about 10 to 15 species worldwide. More than half of those are found in the United States, with about 7 native species. Agrimonia gryposepala is the most widely distributed of those native North American species, being found from coast to coast except in a swath of states from Montana to Texas - those in the Rocky Mountains. It is also missing in Florida. It prefers moderately to very moist habitats. These photos were taken in Cosby Campground in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, at an elevation of about 2500’.

The differences between some Agrimonia species are somewhat subtle. I think this is Agrimonia gryposepala because it has shiny, glandular hairs on the stem and inflorescence, I find no more than 5 major leaflets on the mid-cauline leaves (A. incisa and A. parviflora have 7 to 13), and the non-glandular (eglandular) hairs on the stem and inflorescence are erect (A. rostellata has ascending eglandular hairs in the inflorescence.) That leaves A. gryposepala and A. striata standing among the species found in the region where I found this specimen. Differences between these two species are noted in the descriptions of the photographs.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Tall Hairy Agrimony, Common Agrimony, Hooked Agrimony, Tall Hairy Grooveburr
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AlfalfaMedicago lupulina
(Introduced)
Black Medic, Black Hay, Hop Clover, Hop Medic, Yellow TrefoilThis plant is a native to Eurasion and Africa, and after introduction to the United States has spread to every state, and also throughout most of Canada. Clearly is appropriately considered invasive.

The leaves are trifoliate, looking very much like those of species in the Trifolium (Clover) genus. As with Trifolium campestre the stem of the terminal leaflet is longer than those of the lateral leaflets. Leaflets of Medicago have a tiny tooth at their apex; those of Trifolium do not.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Black Medic, Black Hay, Hop Clover, Hop Medic, Yellow Trefoil
AlumrootHeuchera villosa*
(Native)
Mapleleaf Alumroot, Hairy Alum Root, Rough HeucheraApproximately 32 Heuchera species are found in North America. The populations in the northern and southwestern states in the range (particularly Ohio, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Missouri, and Mississippi) seem to be very limited - only 1 or 2 counties in each of those states. From what I can tell, its presence in New York is questionable; BONAP distribution map indicates a presence in 1 county; New York Flora Association indicates that it is not known in the wild in New York. It is Threatened in Ohio and Endangered in Maryland. There is a variety (var. arkansana) which is found only in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The inflorescence of var. arkansana may be smaller and more dense, and the flowers are glabrous or less hairy than the more widely distributed var. villosa.

The Heuchera genus is named for Johann Heinrich von Heucher, an Austrian-born botanist of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IN, KY, MD, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Mapleleaf Alumroot, Hairy Alum Root, Rough Heuchera
AnemoneAnemone piperi*
(Native)
Piper’s Anemone, WindflowerAccording to the USDA Plants Database, there are 19 species in the Anemone genus that are native to the United States. Several of these are found in a relatively small region of the continent, and Piper’s Anemone - Anemone piperi - is one of those, being found in only 5 northwestern states, and in British Columbia. It grows in shaded, moist forests to altitudes of up to nearly 10,000’. This one was photographed at an elevation of a little over 5,000’.

Found in:
ID, MT, OR, UT, WA
Piper’s Anemone, Windflower
AnemoneAnemone quinquefolia*
(Native)
Wood Anemone, Nightcaps, Twoleaf AnemoneAnemone quinquefolia is found in most of the eastern United States, ranging further west - to the Dakotas - in the northern part of the range, and even as far west as Alberta in Canada. There are two varieties recognized by Flora of North America - var. minima is found only in NC, TN, VA, and WV, and var. quinquefolia, the widely ranging variety. The lateral leaflets in var. minima are sometimes unlobed. However, since they are also sometimes lobed and you may need to get to measuring achene sizes to differentiate, it’s probably not worth trying to determine the variety for most of us.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Wood Anemone, Nightcaps, Twoleaf Anemone
AnemoneAnemone virginiana*
(Native)
Thimbleweed, Tall AnemoneAnemone virginiana is a tall - for an Anemone - summer-blooming plant, growing up to around three feet tall in rich open forests and thickets. There are three varieties; the one with by far the widest distribution in the United States is var. virginiana, which is widely distributed through the eastern two thirds of the United States, and in Ontario and Quebec in Canada.

The other two varieties are differentiated primarily by sepal length, anther length, and involucre bract shape. Var. cylindoridea is found only in Minnesota and New York in the U.S., but is found in all of the southern tier of provinces in Canada. Var. alba is found from Minnesota eastward in the Canada-bordering states, in New England, and the eastern seaboard south to New Jersey, in eastern Canada, and in Saskatchewan.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Thimbleweed, Tall Anemone
Angelica, Wild CeleryAngelica triquinata*
(Native)
Mountain Angelica, Filmy AngelicaThere are about 24 species of Angelica in the North America, with only 18 of those in the central and western half of the continent. Angelica triquinata - Mountain Angelica - is one of four Angelica species found in the eastern United States (2 are only in eastern Canada). It has a fairly narrow distribution, being found in the Appalachian Mountains from far northeast Georgia up through Pennsylvania. It is Endangered in Kentucky and Maryland.

Of the other eastern species, A. atropurpurea is a more northern species has 20 to 45 umbellets vs 13 to 25 umbellets for A. triquinata, and the acute-tipped leaflets are mostly glabrous, while the acuminate leaflets of A. triquinata have ciliate margins. A. dentata is found only in southwestern Georgia and the panhandle of Florida, and both it and the most widely distributed eastern member of the genus, A. venenosa, have obtuse leaf tips, and A. venenosa is densely pubescent. The species name of this last species speaks to the poisonous nature of the plant; there are also indications that A. triquinata is poisonous, based on the drugged reaction of certain insects to the nectar.

Found in:
GA, KY, MD, NC, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Mountain Angelica, Filmy Angelica
ArrowheadSagittaria latifolia*
(Native)
Common Arrowhead, Arrowleaf, Burhead, Wapato, Duck-potato, Broadleaf ArrowheadFound in every state except Nevada (probably too dry) and Alaska, it is native to the North American continent, but has been introduced and naturalized in Hawaii. It is also native to much of southern Canada. It is listed as Endangered in Illinois. The Southern Weed Science Society considers it to be weedy in some areas.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Common Arrowhead, Arrowleaf, Burhead, Wapato, Duck-potato, Broadleaf Arrowhead
AsterSymphyotrichum pilosum*
(Native)
Hairy White Oldfield Aster, Frost Aster, White Heath AsterA different species of Symphyotrichum, S. ericoides, has the national name of White Heath Aster, but this species is also referred to by that common name in some places. Many species formerly classified in the Aster genus have been reclassified into Symphyotrichum and other genera within the Asteraceae family. This one was previously classified as Aster pilosus. Many of these small white aster species are difficult to tell apart (I'm not absolutely certain on this one.) The primary differentiator for S. pilosum one is the hairy stem, which is referenced by the species name pilosum, from the Latin word for hair - pilus.Hairy White Oldfield Aster, Frost Aster, White Heath Aster
AsterSymphyotrichum patens*
(Native)
Late Purple Aster, Spreading AsterFormerly classified as Aster patens. There are three varieties of Symphyotrichum patens – gracile, patens, and patentissimum. Var patens is the only one found in the northeastern states, var patentissimum isn't found in the coastal states. Some authorities do not recognize var gracile. The species is possibly extirpated in Maine; it is officially listed as Threatened in New Hampshire.

It is with some trepidation that I step into the arena of identifying Symphyotricum species. There are many very similar species in this large genus (90 species in the genus.) But this plant was so beautiful I wanted to give it a shot, so with the help of my trusty copy of Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians and the Internet, I've given it a shot, and think this is likely Symphyotrichum patens - Late Purple Aster. It has too few ray flowers to be New England Aster. The pubescent purplish stem eliminates Smooth Aster. The entire leaves eliminate (in my mind) Purple-stemmed Aster. Since the leaves are not linear, this isn't Southern Prairie Aster. The leaves, in my opinion, encircle the stem too much for this to be Aromatic Aster (although I regret not crushing a leaf to check for an aroma.)
Late Purple Aster, Spreading Aster
AsterOclemena acuminata*
(Native)
Whorled Wood Aster, Whorled Aster, Mountain Aster, Sharp-leaved AsterThe traditional Aster genus was quite large, with over 250 species in North America. Although the dissolution of Aster started in the 1830’s, recent studies have resulted in changes to the classification of most (or, it appears to me, all) of those species into various other genera. While most are now in Symphyotricum or Eurybia, there are a few each in several other genera, with 3 of them in Oclemena - all in eastern North America.

Oclemena acuminata was formerly known as Aster acuminatus. It is Threatened in Kentucky, and Presumed Extirpated in Ohio where it was known historically only in Ashtabula County, in the far northeastern corner of the state. It is known in the Appalachian Mountain states from northeast Georgia north to Maine, and in a few eastern provinces in Canada. In the southern part of its range, it is found only in the higher elevations of the mountains, which is why one of the common names is Mountain Aster. The photographs on this page were taken around 6,000’ elevation in western North Carolina.

Found in:
CT, GA, KY, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, VT, WV
Whorled Wood Aster, Whorled Aster, Mountain Aster, Sharp-leaved Aster
AvensGeum canadense*
(Native)
White Avens, Canada AvensGeum canadense - White Avens - is one of the most widely distributed of the Avens, being found in every state in the eastern 2 / 3 of the United States except for Florida, as well as most of eastern Canada. Florida and Hawaii are the only states without a Geum species. Some authorities - and this seems to be the trending direction - include what were formerly classified in the Waldsteinia genus (Barren Strawberry) within Geum, increasing the number of Geum species by four. While this is a member of the Rose family (Rosaceae,) I found it to be similar enough to some Buttercups (Ranununculus) that I spent a lot of time looking for white-petaled Ranunculaceae plants until Twitter friend @desmoinesdem posted a photo of a plant she was trying to identify - same as mine. That photo can be found here: Bleeding Heartland. Fortunately for us, @Lynzey515 identified it for us as White Avens.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
White Avens, Canada Avens
BalloonvineCardiospermum halicacabum*
(Introduced)
Balloon Vine, Love in a Puff, HeartseedIntroduced and spreading in the continental United States, Cardiospermum halicacabum is native to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The only balloonvine native to the continental United States is Cardiospermum dissectum, native to southern Texas.

This vine, which may grow to 10 feet long, climbing on fences and other plants via tendrils, may not survive winter in colder climates, but is considered a perennial in milder climates and be weedy and invasive in those areas. It is officially listed as a pest or noxious weed in Alabama, Arkansas, South Carolina, and Texas.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MI, MO, MS, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA
Balloon Vine, Love in a Puff, Heartseed
BalsamrootBalsamorhiza sagittata*
(Native)
Arrowleaf BalsamrootThere are 14 species of Balsamroot found in the United States, all of them in the west. This one, Arrowleaf Balsamroot, is characterized and named by the elongated arrowhead shape of the leaf. While it is in bloom it can turn large patches of the dry montane landscapes yellow with its dominant presence.Arrowleaf Balsamroot
BaneberryActaea pachypoda*
(Native)
White Baneberry, Doll's EyesPoisonous, especially the berries. This member of the Buttercup family is found in every state in the eastern half of the United States. It is protected in New York and Florida.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
White Baneberry, Doll's Eyes
BarberryXanthorhiza simplicissima*
(Native)
Shrub YellowrootShrub yellowroot gets its name from the yellow interior of the roots and stem. The root contains berberine, from which it gets its yellow color, and probably is what has led to its use in traditional medicines.Shrub Yellowroot
BarberryMahonia repens*
(Native)
Creeping Oregon Grape, Creeping BarberryThe Berberis genus at one time contained all the barberries, but relatively recently those with pinnate leaves have been reclassified into the Mahonia genus. Further, many of what were previously classified as separate species have been consolidated, leaving what had been over 20 species and varieties of Berberis as 13 species or subspecies in the Mahonia genus in the United States.

This species, Mahonia repens is listed as Endangered in California under the synonym Mahonia sonnei. It is found in 19 states, most of them in the west, although there are populations in Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. These eastern populations might have been established from seeds brought back from the west. Seeds were brought east as early as the Lewis and Clark expeditions in the early 19th century.

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, DE, ID, IN, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OR, PA, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY
Creeping Oregon Grape, Creeping Barberry
BeardtonguePenstemon canescens
(Native)
Eastern Gray BeardtongueWoodland perennial to 30 inches tall with pale purple to and white blossoms, with purple lines in the interior.Eastern Gray Beardtongue
BeardtonguePenstemon payettensis
(Native)
Payette Beardtongue, Payette PenstemonOne of the more showy and beautiful Penstemon species, Payette Beardtongue is found only in Idaho, Montana, and Oregon. Unlike some Beardtongues, in P. payettensis the flowers circle the stem, which grows up to 2 feet tall, rather than forming on only one side of the stem.Payette Beardtongue, Payette Penstemon
BeardtonguePenstemon deustus*
(Native)
Hot-rock Penstemon, Scabland penstemon, Hot-rock BeardtongueA plant found in 7 of our western states (CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY,) Hot-rock Penstemon is usually found in middle elevations in rocky soil, growing up to 2 feet tall. It is among the 249 species of Penstemon found in the United States.Hot-rock Penstemon,  Scabland penstemon, Hot-rock Beardtongue
BeautyberryCallicarpa americana*
(Native)
American Beautyberry, French MulberryAmerican Beautyberry is a well-named shrub growing usually to around 5 feet tall, sometimes taller, and 5 to 10 feet wide. The beauty of this plant, native to the southeastern United States, makes it an attractive addition to a native garden.

According to the USDA, the roots, leaves, and branches were used by native Americans medicinally for treatment of fevers, rheumatism, stomachaches, dysentery, and other conditions.
American Beautyberry, French Mulberry
BeeblossomGaura filipes*
(Native)
Slenderstalk Beeblossom, Slender GauraThis tall plant is found throughout much of the southeast and into parts of the midwest.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MS, SC, TN
Slenderstalk Beeblossom, Slender Gaura
BeggarticksBidens aristosa*
(Native)
Bearded Beggarticks, Tickseed Sunflower, Bur MarigoldBeautiful multi-branched, multi-blossomed flower seen in late summer along roads and fields. The specimens presented here probably would have been classified as B. polylepis prior to a 1977 Arkansas study which determined the primary differentiator between the two "species" - the number of calyx lobes - was a factor of the size of the plant within a colony, with the larger plants having B. polylepis characteristics and the shorter plants having B. aristosa characteristics. Since B. aristosa was an older classification, most authorities have merged B. polylepis into B. aristosa.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Bearded Beggarticks, Tickseed Sunflower, Bur Marigold
BeggarticksBidens pilosa*
(Native)
Shepherd's Needles ,Spanish Needles, Romerillo, Common Beggar's-tick, Hairy Beggarticks, Cobbler's PegsSynonym: Bidens alba
Many authorities (and, frankly, most folks who are not authorities) continue to consider Bidens alba a separate species from Bidens pilosa, and the plants on this page would be B. alba under those circumstances. As of January, 2012 the USDA plants database continued to maintain the separation of species, but the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (along with the Flora of North Amertica) has adopted a more recent classification which rolls B. alba and B. odorata into B. pilosa. (I know that will be a disappointment to some.) The USDA map shown does not include Missouri (as of January 2012), since if the species are considered separate B. pilosa is not found in the state, but B. alba is found there. That map also shows the plant as non-native. Bidens alba is considered native to parts of the United States. If that plant is considered a separate species, then Bidens pilosa is a non-native species. If Bidens alba is rolled into Bidens pilosa, then Bidens pilosa will need to be considered a native species in those areas where Bidens alba was considered to be native. That logic may be difficult to follow, but that's why I indicate B. pilosa to be a native species while the USDA map shows it to be introduced.

On a December, 2011 trip to Florida Shepherd's Needles seemed to become the dominant flowering plant along the highways by the time we got as far south as Gainesville. It seemed to be everywhere, and is officially considered a weedy or invasive plant in Hawaii, where it is not native. It's also considered weedy and invasive in much of the rest of the tropical world, where it has spread as man's travel has spread. While the plant may (probably will!) spread where it is not wanted, it is reported to be a great attractor for butterflies.

Found in:
AL, AZ, CA, CT, FL, GA, HI, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NM, OR, PA, SC, TX, WI
Shepherd's Needles ,Spanish Needles, Romerillo, Common Beggar's-tick, Hairy Beggarticks, Cobbler's Pegs
BellflowerCampanula divaricata*
(Native)
Southern Harebell, Small Bonny Bellflower, Southern Bellflower, Southern BluebellSouthern Harebell is a many-branched, somewhat weak-stemmed plant with many attractive, dangling, small, bell-shaped blue flowers. Primarily a species of the southeast, it is endangered or extirpated in Maryland.

Found in:
AL, CT, GA, KY, MD, NC, NH, SC, TN, VA, WV
Southern Harebell, Small Bonny Bellflower, Southern Bellflower, Southern Bluebell
BellflowerCampanulastrum americanum*
(Native)
Tall Bellflower, American BellflowerThis species is perhaps more widely known as Campanula americana which would place it in the genus containing Southern Harebell (C. Divaricata) and Bluebell Bellflower (Campanula rotundifolia.) However, the Campanula species have distinctly bell-shaped flowers, which is not the case with Campanulastrum americanum, which has relatively flat flowers. That would have been one of the characteristics that resulted in creation of a new genus for American (aka Tall) Bellflower - Campanulastrum which has this single species in it.

The plant is found in most of the eastern half of the United States except for the New England states, New Jersey, and Delaware.
Tall Bellflower, American Bellflower
BellwortUvularia grandiflora*
(Native)
Large-flowered BellwortThis member of the lily family is one of the mid-spring wildflowers. It has lovely yellow flowers and attractive foliage. It is found throughout much of the eastern half of the United States, but is listed as an endangered species in Connecticut and New Hampshire.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Large-flowered Bellwort
BellwortUvularia perfoliata*
(Native)
Perfoliate Bellwort, Merry BellsPerfoliate Bellwort is one of two perfoliate - leaf-piercing stems - bellworts. The other is Large-flowered Bellwort, Uvularia grandiflora. Perfoliate Bellwort is a smaller plant, usually with smaller leaves and blossoms, in addition to usually being somewhat lower-growing.Perfoliate Bellwort, Merry Bells
BellwortUvularia sessilifolia
(Native)
Sessileleaf Bellwort, Wild OatsEarly- to mid-spring smooth-stemmed wildflower of deciduous woodlands.Sessileleaf Bellwort, Wild Oats
Bergamot, BeebalmMonarda fistulosa*
(Native)
Wild BergamotThe Bergamots are also known as Bee Balm. This species is lavender with a hairy upper lip on the blossom. Wild Bergamot
Bergamot, BeebalmMonarda clinopodia*
(Native)
White Bergamot, Basil Bee BalmWhite Bergamot can usually be found in many-flowered clusters of plants 18-36 inches tall in showy displays starting in late spring or early summer. Many authorities apply the name Basil Beebalm to M. clinopodia, but both the USDA Plants Database and ITIS database apply Basil Beebalm only to a separate species, M. clinopodioides, and only the name White Beebalm to M. clinopodia. The ranges of M. clinopodioides and M. clinopodia are contiguous, but do not overlap, according to the USDA Plants Database.White Bergamot, Basil Bee Balm
Bergamot, BeebalmMonarda didyma*
(Native)
Crimson Bee Balm, Scarlet Bergamot, Scarlet Beebalm, Oswego TeaThere are 16 Beebalm (Monarda) species in the United States. All are native to the lower 48 states; Alaska and Hawaii are the only states without a Monarda species. Texas is the most favored state by Monarda; 12 of the species are found in that state, 4 of them being found exclusively in Texas.

Monarda didyma, Scarlet Beebalm, is one of the more widely distributed species, being found in most of the northeast quadrant of the United States, including several states west of the Mississippi River, and south to Georgia.

Found in:
CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Crimson Bee Balm, Scarlet Bergamot, Scarlet Beebalm, Oswego Tea
BittercressCardamine concatenata*
(Native)
Cutleaf Toothwortsyn. Cardamine laciniata, Dentaria laciniata, Dentaria concatenata
Cutleaf Toothwort is one of the early spring wildflowers, blooming March through May.
Cutleaf Toothwort
BittercressCardamine dissecta*
(Native)
Forkleaf Toothwort, Thread Leafed Toothwort, Fineleaf ToothwortForkleaf Toothwort gets the Forkleaf name because its leaves divide - fork - many times into narrow, untoothed segments. The narrow leaves give it the other common names listed. According to the Wildflower Center, the toothwort common name refers to the tooth-like projections on the underground stems.Forkleaf Toothwort, Thread Leafed Toothwort, Fineleaf Toothwort
BittercressCardamine angustata
(Native)
Slender ToothwortToothworts have previously been classified in the Dentaria genus, but recently, presumably based on DNA testing, have been moved en masse into the Cardamine – bittercress – genus. Many publications still list the plants in Dentaria.

C. agustata - Slender Toothwort – has long-stemmed basal leaves which are broader and more ovate than their single pair of opposing, 3-part stem leaves. The basal leaves are veined (but not as prominently as in C. diphylla) and are toothed. The stem leaves of C. angustata may be toothed or entire. Heterophylla, the species epithet used when this plant was classified in Dentaria, means "different leaves" – either referring to the difference between the stem and basal leaves, or with differences in the appearance of particularly the stem leaves on different plants within the species.

The plant is typically 8 to 16 inches tall. Toothworts grow from a rhizome. One differentiator between C. diphylla and C. angustata is that the rhizome of C. angustata has constrictions forming multiple segments, while the rhizome of C. diphylla is of uniform size. I do not encourage digging up native plants; populations have been lost by that activity.
Slender Toothwort
BittercressCardamine hirsuta*
(Introduced)
Hairy Bittercress, Hoary BittercressHairy Bittercress is a weedy plant of the Mustard family, introduced from Europe and Asia. Frequently found in moist fields, yards, and roadsides. It is one of the earliest bloomers, frequently blooming in January or February. The foliage is edible.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WV
Hairy Bittercress, Hoary Bittercress
BlackberryRubus argutus
(Native)
Sawtooth Blackberry, Southern Blackberry, Highbush Blackberry The Rubus genus covers blackberries, dewberries, and raspberries. There are 273 species in the North America, according to the USDA Plants Database. Most of these species are not widely distributed or common where they are found. Rubus argutus is one of the more widely distributed species, and is the most commonly found blackberry in the southeastern United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Sawtooth Blackberry, Southern Blackberry, Highbush Blackberry
BlackberryRubus flagellaris*
(Native)
Northern Dewberry, Common DewberryRubus flagellaris - Northern Dewberry - is plant with a trailing stem running along the ground for up to 15 feet. The stem has scattered hooked prickles, and is green when young, brown when older. The fruiting stems rise from the trailing stem, sometimes rising to 4 feet above the ground. The leaves are compound, usually trifoliate, with the three leaflets having a serrated edge.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Northern Dewberry, Common Dewberry
BlackberryRubus odoratus*
(Native)
Purple-flowering Raspberry, ThimbleberryThe clusters of purple flowers with nice maple-shaped leaves make this an an attractive plant, found along roadsides and the edges of fertile forests. It is a shrub that grows thickly, to around 5 feet tall.

Endangered or Threatened in Illinois and Indiana.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Purple-flowering Raspberry, Thimbleberry
BlackberryRubus parviflorus*
(Native)
Thimbleberry, Western Thimbleberry, Salmonberry, Mountain Sorrel, White Flowering Raspberry, Western Thimble RaspberryWestern Thimbleberry is a native of the western part of the United States, and the north central region as far east as Michigan. There is a disjunct population in Massachusetts; I would suspect that this is a naturalized population rather than indigent.

When I photographed this I had hoped it was Bartonberry - Rubus bartonianus - a Rubus species found only in Hell's Canyon. While similar, the easy access location of this plant (Kleinschmidt Grade) didn't match to any of the known locations of Rubus bartonianus, and the leaves are somewhat different, so that left me with Thimbleberry rather than Bartonberry.

Thimbleberry is also a common name for an eastern Rubus species, Rubus odoratus.

Found in:

AK, AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, IL, MA, MI, MN, MT, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WI, WY
Thimbleberry, Western Thimbleberry, Salmonberry, Mountain Sorrel, White Flowering Raspberry, Western Thimble Raspberry
BladdernutStaphylea trifolia*
(Native)
American BladdernutWalker County, Ga 04/19/2008. The seed capsule is an enlarged green papery-shelled 'bladder', giving it the 'bladdernut' common name.American Bladdernut
BlanketflowerGaillardia pulchella*
(Native)
Indian Blanket, Indian Blanketflower, FirewheelThere are 12 species of Blanketflower native to the United States, plus a hybrid cultivar (G. xgrandiflora) which has naturalized in several states. At least one species is found in every state, with Gaillardia pulchella being the most widespread of them.

This is a popular species for gardening due the the attractive flowers and hardy nature of the plant, being heat- and drought-tolerant. It is the basis for at least one cultivar. It can flower year round in parts of its range. Native to much of the continential United States, it is an introduced species in Hawaii and Canada. My speculation is that it is likely an introduced plant, perhaps a garden escapee, in Alaska and other parts of its northern range.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI
Indian Blanket, Indian Blanketflower, Firewheel
Blazing StarLiatris spicata*
(Native)
Dense Blazing Star, Marsh Gayfeather, Spike GayfeatherLiatris spicata is found in most of the eastern half of the United States, primarily east of the Mississippi River. The populations that are found west of the Mississippi are likely the result of naturalization from garden escapees. There are two varieties: var. resinosa and var. spicata. Var. resinosa is found in the coastal plains of the southeast, and is differentiated primarily by narrower leaves than in var. spicata, and more abrupt change from relatively wider leaves in the lower have of the stem to nearly linear, bractlike leaves in the upper stem.

Most likely to be found flowering in July thru September, it is found in a variety of habitats where it can receive full sun or perhaps a bit of shade. It is tolerant of a range of soil and moisture conditions, but probably most commonly seen on road margins. It is a good addition to native plant gardens.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV
Dense Blazing Star, Marsh Gayfeather, Spike Gayfeather
BloodrootSanguinaria canadensis*
(Native)
Bloodroot, Red Indian Paint, Red PuccoonSanguinaria canadensis is a beautiful white early spring wildflower. Bloodroot gets its name from the red juice of the root, caused by the compound sanguinarine. While sanguinarine has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal characteristics, it can be toxic, so do not ingest it.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Bloodroot, Red Indian Paint, Red Puccoon
Blue Eyed MaryCollinsia parviflora*
(Native)
Blue-eyed Mary, Maiden Blue Eyed Mary, Smallflower Blue Eyed MaryWhile there are a couple of Collinsia - Blue-eyed Mary – species found in the eastern United States, most of the 19 species found in the U.S. are western plants. Of those in the west, Collinsia parviflora has the broadest distribution, and is even found in a few eastern states, and throughout much of Canada.

Maiden Blue-eyed Mary is Threatened in Michigan.

Collinsia has recently been reclassified, moved from Scrophulariaceae – Figwort family - into Plantaginaceae – Plantain family. Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, MA, MI, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OR, PA, SD, UT, VT, WA, WY
Blue-eyed Mary, Maiden Blue Eyed Mary, Smallflower Blue Eyed Mary
Blue Eyed MaryCollinsia verna*
(Native)
Blue Eyed Mary, Spring Blue-eyed Mary, Eastern Blue Eyed Mary, Innocence, Lady-by-the-LakeWhile many publications still list the Collinsia genus in Scrophulariaceae – the Figwort family (aka Snapdragon family) - it has more recently been classified within the Plantains - Plantaginaceae.

Most of the Collinsia species are found in the western part of the United States. Collinsia verna is one of only a couple found in the east, and this is the only one with widespread distribution in the east. This species is native to Tennessee, but the plants photographed here are from a long-naturalized population in Hamilton County, TN. The USDA Plants Database doesn't list it as found in Alabama, but the Alabama Plant Atlas, published by the Alabama Herbarium Consortium and The University of West Alabama do list it in Colbert County in northwest Alabama. The genus is named for Zacchaeus Collins, an early 19th-century botanist.

Found in:
AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV
Blue Eyed Mary, Spring Blue-eyed Mary, Eastern Blue Eyed Mary, Innocence, Lady-by-the-Lake
Blue-eyed GrassSisyrinchium angustifolium
(Native)
Blue-eyed Grass, Stout Blue-eyed Grass, Narrowleaf Blue-eyed GrassThis beautiful member of the Lily family has grass-like winged stems frequently growing in clumps. The lovely blue flowers with yellow centers are at the end of the grass-like stems. Blue-eyed Grass, Stout Blue-eyed Grass, Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass
Blue-eyed GrassSisyrinchium mucronatum*
(Native)
Needletip Blue-eyed Grass, Michaux's Blue-eyed-Grass, Slender Blue-eyed Grass, Narrow-Leaved Blue-eyed-GrassSisyrinchium is a very confusing genus, even among botanists – much more to a rank hobbyist as myself. Based on the following criteria, I'm calling this S. Mucronatum:
  • Purplish spathe
  • USDA database has this one in Walker County, Ga, where I photographed it. The other species that are possibles in Walker County because they may have purple coloring in the spathes are:
    • S. atlanticum - general plant formation does not seem to match my plant, and the spathes only occasionally have a purple tinge, where as this plant has more than just a tinge.
    • S. capillare - USDA has no county information on this species, so I do not know if it is in Walker or nearby counties, and has even narrower stems than S. mucronatum.
    • S. nashii – Wider stems than S. mucronatum, and the purplish tinge in the spathes are only on the margins.
  • This plant has narrower stems than most of the Sisyrinchiums I've seen around here, which I believe to be S. angustifolium. However, the stems in this plant may be too wide for S. mucronatum, which still leaves me with some doubt in this identification, with the most likely alternative identification to be S. nashii.


There are 41 Blue-eyed Grass species listed in the USDA Plants Database, with every state in the union having at least one species. Sisyrinchium mucronatum is found throughout much of the eastern United States and Canada, but is protected as Endangered or of Special Concern in Maine, Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio. It flowers in late spring and early summer.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Needletip Blue-eyed Grass, Michaux's Blue-eyed-Grass, Slender Blue-eyed Grass, Narrow-Leaved Blue-eyed-Grass
BluebeadClintonia borealis
(Native)
Blue-bead Lily, Yellow Corn Lily, Yellow ClintoniaClintonia borealis is one of four species of Clintonia found in the United States; all are native. C. borealis and C. umbellata are found in the eastern half, while C. andrewsiana and C. uniflora are found in the west.

A similar species is Clintonia umbellata (White Clintonia, Speckled Wood Lily). Clintona borealis has a yellow-green flower, with usually 3 to 8 of them in the raceme, while Clintona umbellata is white, usually speckled, with 10 to 24 in an umbel. Clintonia umbellata may have narrower leaves than borealis,and while borealis may have a few hairs on the margins, umbellata has many.

Found in:
CT, GA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Blue-bead Lily, Yellow Corn Lily, Yellow Clintonia
BluebeadClintonia umbellulata*
(Native)
White Clintonia, Clinton’s Lily, Speckled WoodlilyClintonia is a small genus of only 5 species, 4 of which are native to North America - the other one is Asian. Two of the North American species are western, the other two are more eastern. Clintonia umbellulata is a species primarily of the Appalachian Mountains, found from north Georgia and South Carolina northward to western New York. It is a protected plant in New York and Ohio. The other eastern species is Clintonia borealis, which is found at higher elevations of the Appalachian Mountains in the southern end of its range (also north Georgia and South Carolina) but is much more widespread and at lower elevations in the northern tier of states.

Found in:
GA, KY, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
White Clintonia, Clinton’s Lily, Speckled Woodlily
BluebellsMertensia virginica*
(Native)
Virginia BluebellsVirginia Bluebell is a showy, early spring wildflower found through most of the eastern United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV
Virginia Bluebells
BlueberryVaccinium elliottii*
(Native)
Elliott’s Blueberry, Mayberry, High Bush BlueberryThere is much variability in the classification of blueberries and their relatives. Some authorities place them in several different genera, and others place them all in Vaccinium, subdividing it into several sections. Broadly described, Vaccinium includes blueberries, cranberries, and bilberries, and may include as many as 500 species worldwide. There are some other “berry” common names applied to Vaccinium as well, such as deerberry and huckleberry - both of those may also be applied to species in other genera as well. Since they are similar in appearance and can hybridize, identification can be difficult; fortunately the fine folks at the Wolf Creek Trout Lily Preserve had already identified these.

Elliott’s Blueberry is a true blueberry in the sense that it is in the Cyanococcus section of Vaccinium; for those who subscribe to the narrower classifications, it is classified by some as Cyanococcus elliottii. It is primarily a species of the coastal plains of the southeastern United States, growing in bottomlands and on sandy slopes near rivers primarily in coastal plains from Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas. It is also found in Coffee County, Tennessee (certainly NOT a coastal plain), where that disjunct population is Endangered.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA
Elliott’s Blueberry, Mayberry, High Bush Blueberry
BlueheartsBuchnera americana*
(Native)
Blue Hearts, American Bluehearts, Prairie Bluehearts, Plains BlueheartsFinding consistent information on the Buchnera genus has been somewhat difficult. It has been classified in the Scrophulariaceae family (Figworts), but as that family is being dismantled, Buchnera most recently has been placed in Orobanchaceae (Broomrape family), possibly in part due to its hemiparasitic nature - it gets some nourishment from the roots of other plants (no one plant species in particular), but also produces its own nourishment through photosynthesis. There are 138 species of Buchnera worldwide (from The Plant List), with several of them found in North America. Two Buchnera species are found only in a single state each - Hawaii has the introduced species Buchnera pusilla and Arizona has Buchnera obliqua. There is some dispute as to the identity of a species found in some southeastern states - either Buchnera longifolia or Buchnera floridana, depending on which authority to which you subscribe.

Buchnera americana is the most widely distributed North American species in the genus, and is found historically in 24 states. It now has protected status or is no longer present in at least 7 of them, perhaps in as many as 13 states. It is also very rare in Canada, being found only in a small area of Ontario, where it has Endangered status.

Found (at least historically) in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA
Blue Hearts, American Bluehearts, Prairie Bluehearts, Plains Bluehearts
BluetsHoustonia caerulea
(Native)
Quaker Ladies, Azure Bluet, BluetsSmall plant with mostly basal leaves; stem leaves are opposite and quite small. Can form large colonies.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Quaker Ladies, Azure Bluet, Bluets
BluetsHoustonia pusilla
(Native)
Tiny Bluet, Small Bluet, Least BluetThese tiny plants can be easy to miss when blooming single, but even with their 2 to 4 inch height, they're hard to miss with the frequent masses blooming together.Tiny Bluet, Small Bluet, Least Bluet
BluetsHoustonia purpurea*
(Native)
Venus' Pride, Large Bluet, Large Houstonia, Summer Bluet, Purple BluetHoustonia purpurea is in a group of Houstonia species with multiple flowers in the inflorescence - subgenus Chamisme. My experience with Bluets prior to identifying this plant was with the smaller bluets with solitary flowers on usually terminal pedicels - H. caerulea and H. pusilla. Two of the three varieties of this species, H. purpurea var. purpurea and var. calycosa, are found throughout much of the eastern half of the United States. The third variety, var. montana - Roan Mountain Bluet - is found only in a small area of the Appalachian Mountains on the Tennessee / North Carolina border.

Houstonia purpurea var. montana is a U.S. endangered species. Some authorities recognize it as a separate species, Houstonia montana. While the other two varieties can be quite common in parts of their ranges, var. calycosa is listed as Endangered in New York, and var. purpurea is Endangered in North Carolina. Var. purpurea is presented in these photographs.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Venus' Pride, Large Bluet, Large Houstonia, Summer Bluet, Purple Bluet
BluetsHoustonia serpyllifolia*
(Native)
Creeping Bluet, Mountain Bluet, Thymeleaf Bluet, Appalachian Bluet, Michaux’s BluetsThere are about 18 species of Houstonia found in North America, mostly in the east and the south, with Texas having the honor of the most species. Houstonia serpyllifolia has a relatively narrow distribution, found in the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania (perhaps historically only) south to extreme northeast Georgia and western South Carolina. It is Rare (or Extirpated) in Pennsylvania, protected as a State Endangered Species in Kentucky, and is on the State Watch List in Maryland.

This is normally a late spring through early summer blooming species, but these were photographed in a south-facing rock bluff at about 6000' in September.

Found in:
GA, KY, MD, NC, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Creeping Bluet, Mountain Bluet, Thymeleaf Bluet, Appalachian Bluet, Michaux’s Bluets
BroomrapeOrobanche uniflora*
(Native)
One-flowered Broomrape ; One-flowered Cancer Root, Ghostpipe, Naked BroomrapeNot having knowingly encountered this parasitic plant previously, I was surprised to find that it is found in every state in the United States except for Hawaii. It's also found in much of Canada. It may attach its feeder roots to the roots of many different species of plants.

Genus Orobanche are classified as a noxious weed or similar pest plant in the United States federally and in 9 states specifically, but there is an exception for native species in all cases but two states (Massachusetts and Florida), and Florida specifically excludes Orobanche uniflora from its noxious weed list, which leaves only Massachusetts with a negative classification for One-flowered Broomrape.

An explanation of the somewhat unfortunate name is probably appropriate. "Broom" is an old-world name for vetches and other similar legumes, which are among the plants which Orobanche parasitize. A "rapum" is a term for a knob of roots, to which Orobanche attach to perform their nefarious parisitic activities.

Synonyms: Thalesia uniflora, Aphyllon uniflorum, Orobanche porphyrantha, Orobanche purpurea, Orobanche sedii, Orobanche terrae-novae.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
One-flowered Broomrape ; One-flowered Cancer Root, Ghostpipe, Naked Broomrape
BugbaneCimicifuga racemosa*
(Native)
Black Cohosh, Black Bugbane, Black Baneberry, Black Snakeroot, Fairy CandleSynonym Actaea racemosa. Black Cohosh is well-known for medicinal uses; as with many plants with medicinal value, it is also poisonous if not used properly. The plant is up to about 8 or 10 feet tall, branching with several inflorescences on each plant. It is quite distinctive; I've read it described as “stately,” and I agree. It is found in eastern North America from Canada south to central Georgia in the United States.

Actaea racemosa was originally classified in the Actaea genus by Linnaeus, but Nuttall reclassifed it to Cimicifuga based on the follicles. However, a 1998 study by James A. Compton, Alastair Culham, and Stephen L. Jury, using DNA testing and other techniques, has recommended that the genus should be considered part of the Actaea genus. If considered separate, the Actaea genus is Baneberry with four species; the Cimicifuga genus is Bugbane containing six species. USDA uses the Actaea; ISIS.gov uses the Cimicifuga classification. When there is conflict, I use the ITIS classification.

It is classified as Endangered in Illinois and Massachusetts.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Black Cohosh, Black Bugbane, Black Baneberry, Black Snakeroot, Fairy Candle
BugbaneTrautvetteria caroliniensis*
(Native)
Tassel Rue, False Bugbane, Carolina BugbaneSome experts consider Trautvetteria caroliniensis - Carolina Bugbane - to be monotypic, although other authorities consider there to be 4 to 6 species in the genus. While some authorities recognize three varities of Trautvetteria caroliniensis - var. caroliniensis in the eastern U.S., var. borealis in the western U.S., and var. japonica in Asia. There is disagreement even on that classification, and most authorities consider the plants in these three disjunct geographical regions to be the same species, since the differences between the varieties seemed primarily to be geographic. There also appears to perhaps be an as-yet unnamed new species in the genus which has been found in Claiborne County, Tennessee.
Trautvetteria caroliniensis is protected with a Rare classification in Pennsylvania, and is likely extirpated in Indiana.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MD, MO, MS, MT, NC, NM, OR, PA, SC, TN, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY
Tassel Rue, False Bugbane, Carolina Bugbane
BundleflowerDesmanthus illinoensis*
(Native)
Prairie Mimosa, Illinois Bundleflower, Prickleweed, Illinois DesmanthusWhile there are 14 species of Bundleflower (Desmanthus) in the United States, Desmanthus illinoensis - Prairie Mimosa - has by far the widest distribution. Most species are limited to one or two states each, with a handful in a few more states than that, but Desmanthus illinoensis is found in 29 states in the south and central parts of the United States. Texas has the prize with the most Desmanthus species, with 10 species found in the state.

Syn. Acuan illinoense; Mimosa illinoensis

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, DC, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NM, NV, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI
Prairie Mimosa, Illinois Bundleflower, Prickleweed, Illinois Desmanthus
Bur CucumberSicyos angulatus*
(Native)
Bur Cucumber, Oneseed Bur Cucumber; Star CucumberWhile there are several species in Sicyos in the United States, Sicyos angulatus is the most widespread. The others are found in only 1 or 2 states (Sicyos ampelophyllus in 3), but Sycyos angulatus is found in 37 states and in Canada as well - clearly another of the few species in the Cucumber Family (Cucurbitaceae) found in temperate climates. Bur Cucumber is considered a noxious weed in Delaware, Indiana, and Kentucky.

This vine grows up to 25’ long and may have multiple stems. It has branched tendrils which allow it to climb over fences and other plants.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Bur Cucumber, Oneseed Bur Cucumber; Star Cucumber
BurnetSanguisorba minor*
(Introduced)
Small Burnet, Salad burnet, Garden burnetBurnet means brown - color of the post-mature flower heads. Salad Burnet is one of the common names, because the plant was brough over from Europe as a food - it is used in salads, drinks, and dressings, and is reported to have a cucumber-like flavor.

The plant is eaten not only by humans, but also the seeds or foliage are eaten by birds, elk, deer, rodents, hares, and rabbits, and is a valuable food source for these animals. In spite of being non-native, it does not appear to be aggressive in crowding out native species.

Found in:

AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, ID, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MT, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Small Burnet, Salad burnet, Garden burnet
Bush HoneysuckleDiervilla rivularis*
(Native)
Mountain Bush Honeysuckle, Hairy Bush honeysuckle, Riverbank Bush HoneysuckleThis is one of only three species of Diervilla - Bush Honeysuckle. Officially listed as Threatened in Tennessee, Mountain Bush Honeysuckle seems to be even rarer in Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina, the only other states where it is recorded. According to USDA Plants Database, found only in Dade County in Georgia, Yancey County in North Carolina, five counties in Tennessee. The USDA does not have a county distribution map for Alabama, but the Alabama Plant Atlas shows it only in Cherokee and Blount counties in Alabama. There is a report from the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society that indicates it as being collected at Lula Falls in Walker County, Georgia in 1888. That is probably 10 or 15 miles from where I photographed this plant in Cloudland Canyon State Park, in Dade County, Georgia.

Found in:
AL, GA, NC, TN
Mountain Bush Honeysuckle, Hairy Bush honeysuckle, Riverbank Bush Honeysuckle
ButtercupRanunculus bulbosus
(Introduced)
Bulbous ButtercupWalker County, Ga 04/06/2009Bulbous Buttercup
ButtercupRanunculus abortivus*
(Native)
Littleleaf Buttercup, Littleleaf CrowfootI may not be putting too many Buttercup (genus Ranunculus) species here on USWildflowers.com. It's not that I don't run across them often; it's just that with the number of different species - the USDA lists 93 species in the United States - and with many species looking very similar to others in the genus, it takes a lot of effort and research to narrow it down to a specific species. This one, for example, I've been working on off and on for nearly a year. I originally thought it was the native Hooked Buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus.) But then I noticed the achene beak on the plant I was researching was not nearly long enough to be Hooked Buttercup. My next choice was an introduced species, Smallflower Buttercup (Ranunculus parviflorus) which has a hooked beak on the achene, but much shorter than in R. recurvatus. However, R. parviflorus has a hispid (bristly-hairy) stem; the plant I was working on has a glabrous (hairless) stem. I finally settled on the native Buttercup Ranunculus abortivus - Littleleaf Buttercup. They may have been other, similar small-flowered Buttercups that I eliminated because they aren't found in northwest Georgia, so if you're trying to identify one outside that area, this might not be your species. But if you call it a Hooked Buttercup, who's going to argue with you?

Ranunculus abortivus is found in all but six states:
AK, AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Littleleaf  Buttercup, Littleleaf Crowfoot
Butterfly PeaCentrosema virginianum*
(Native)
Spurred Butterfly Pea, Climbing Butterfly Pea, Wild Blue Vine, Virginia Centro, Butterflypeahere are about 40 species of Centrosema worldwide; 3 are found in the continental United States. 2 of those are found only in Florida (a native species, C. arenicola, and an introduced species, C. sagittatum.) There are also 2 additional Centrosema species found in Puerto Rico; 1 of those is also in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Centrosema virginianum, Spurred Butterfly Pea, is found in 18 states, Puerto Rico, and the USVI.

It is primarily a plant of the southeastern U.S., but is found as far north as Illinois and New Jersey. It is Endangered in New Jersey. Since this is the only Centrosema species in most of its range, and it is similar to Clitoria mariana, is it most confused with that species. These plants share the trait of having the standard lower than the other petals; most legumes have the standard held above the other petals.

Found in:
AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IL, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
Spurred Butterfly Pea, Climbing Butterfly Pea, Wild Blue Vine, Virginia Centro, Butterflypea
ButtonbushCephalanthus occidentalis*
(Native)
Buttonbush, Common Buttonbush, Button Ball, Riverbush, Honey-bells, Button WillowWhile there are 17 species in the Cephalanthus genus worldwide, there are only two species of Buttonbush found in the United States. Mexican Buttonbush, Cephalanthus salicifolius is native to a couple of the southernmost counties in Texas, the only state in the U.S. in which it is found. The species presented here, Common Buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis - is found throughout the eastern United States and Canada, as far west as Nebraska and Texas, and is also found in Arizona and California. (I find it curious that it makes the jump from Texas to Arizona, but is apparently not found in New Mexico, which lies between those two states.) Some authorities recognize two varieties, with the western variety known as California Buttonbush.

Common Buttonbush is a wetland shrub or small tree which can grow to nearly 10 feet tall along the banks of streams, ponds, lakes, marshes, and in other wetland areas. The bark contains a poison that will cause vomiting, paralysis, and convulsions if eaten.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Buttonbush, Common Buttonbush, Button Ball, Riverbush, Honey-bells, Button Willow
ButtonweedDiodia virginiana
(Native)
Virginia Buttonweed, Large Buttonweed, Poor JoeThere are 8 species of Diodia - Buttonweed - found in the United States, although only four of these are found in the "states proper" - the other 4 species are found in the U.S. Territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Two species found on the mainland are native to the United States - Diodia teres (common names Rough Buttonweed and Poor Joe,) and this species – Virginia Buttonweed, Diodia virginiana.

While this plant is officially listed as Threatened or Endangered in Indiana and New Jersey, it also is considered a weed by some authorities, and I can attest to its weediness, with the example here photographed in an area it had taken over in a small garden patch we had. It is noteworthy, however, that it was subsequently pushed out by the much more aggressive non-native invasive Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea.) Virginia Buttonweed is a branching, sprawling plant with opposite leaves.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Virginia Buttonweed, Large Buttonweed, Poor Joe
ButtonweedDiodia teres
(Native)
Rough Buttonweed, Poor JoeDiodia teres is a wildflower many consider to be a weed. While it can be a creeping plant with reclining stems, in my experience it is more likely to be upright than its equally invasive cousin, Virginia Buttonweed (D. virginiana).Rough Buttonweed, Poor Joe
California PoppyEschscholzia californica*
(Native)
California PoppyIn spite of the beauty of its blossom, the California Poppy is considered to be a weed by many people. Native to North America, scattered wild populations of this plant are found in most states. However, since it was first collected on a Russian exploratory voyage to the west coast of North America in the early 19th century, it is likely that most of the eastern populations are the result of seeds and plants brought back from the west, rather than from native populations in those areas.

The California Poppy is the state flower of California.
California Poppy
CamasCamassia scilloides*
(Native)
Wild Hyacinth; Atlantic CamasWild Hyacinth, also known as Atlantic Camas and Eastern Camas. Atlantic Camas is the "official" national name, according to the USDA Plants Database. It grows in rich, shady, moist coves. The blooming period lasts for several weeks in April and May. Wild Hyacinth; Atlantic Camas
CamasCamassia quamash*
(Native)
Small Camas, QuamashThis plant blooms in early to mid-spring and grows in moist meadows and on grassy slopes. The ones photographed here were in a marshy area along a stream at an elevation of around 5300 feet. The bulbs of the plant are edible and were used as a significant food source for native Americans. However, the bulbs look similar to those of Death Camas - the name of that plant is indicative of its poisonous nature - so beware!

Camassia quamash is found in the Rocky Mountain and west coast states.

Found in:
CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Small Camas, Quamash
Cat's EarHypochaeris radicata*
(Introduced)
Hairy Cat's Ear, False DandelionYellow aster with blooms at the end of smooth stem, rising from a floret of hairy dandelion-like basal leaves. Other common names are common cat's-ear, false dandelion, frogbit, gosmore, and spotted catsear. Hairy Cat's Ear, False Dandelion
CatchflySilene virginica*
(Native)
Fire Pink, Scarlet CatchflyFire Pink has a strikingly beautiful scarlet red springtime blossom.

Silene virginica is listed as Endangered or Threatened in Florida, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

There are two other Silene species with scarlet flowers and similar ranges - Silene rotundifolia (Roundleaf Catchfly) and Silene regia (Royal Catchfly.) S. rotundifolia has the smallest distribution - AL, GA, KY, OH, TN, WV, with S. regia being found in most those states plus AR, IL, IN, KS, MO (not in WV.) S. virginica has the widest distribution, being found in most of the western United States. Royal Catchfly does not have the deeply notched petals of the other two species, and is a taller plant. For the other two species, the stamens and styles are also more exserted in S. virginica than in S. rotundifolia. The veining in the calyx of S. virginica is more distinct. The shape of the flower petals are somewhat different as well, but the leaf shape may be the most obvious difference between the species. S. rotundifolia, as indicated by the species epithet, has much more rounded leaves than S. virginica.

Found in:
AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV
Fire Pink, Scarlet Catchfly
CatchflySilene rotundifolia
(Native)
Roundleaf CatchflyI originally identified this as Silene virginica - Fire Pink, but S. virginica has narrower petals, and doesn't have the pronounced 'second spike' along the outer edge of the petal. The USDA Plants Database doesn't have this listed near Polk County, TN, where I photographed this specimen, and I don't have photographs of the rest of the plant, but I have a reasonably high level of confidence in that identificaiton. Roundleaf Catchfly
CatchflySilene stellata*
(Native)
Starry Campion, Widow's FrillStarry Campion is listed as of Special Concern in Connecticut, Threatened in Michigan, apparently no longer occurs in Rhode Island based on its Historical classification.Starry Campion, Widow's Frill
CatchflySilene regia*
(Native)
Royal CatchflyRoyal Catchfly - Silene regia is a plant of rocky prairies, glades, and open woods with attractive scarlet red flowers. It appears similar to Fire Pink - Silene virginica - but Silene regia has a much smaller distribution - 12 states, and in 6 of those states it is protected due to its rarity, having Rare, Endangered, or Threatened status. It is possible that it has no longer survived in Knox County, the only county in Tennessee where it was found. The photographs on this page were taken at what may be the only remaining site for Royal Catchfly in the state of Georgia - thanks to Alan Cressler for the information on this location.

The flowers are also somewhat similar to those of both Silene rotundifolia and Silene virginica, but Silene regia is a taller plant and the petals are much more shallowly notched, or perhaps not notched at all.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MO, OH, OK, TN
Royal Catchfly
CeanothusCeanothus americanus*
(Native)
New Jersey Tea, Wild Snowball, Mountain Sweet, RedrootThere are around 55 to 65 species in Ceanothus, all in North America, but only 3 are found east of the Mississippi. Those three are the species presented on this page - New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus) and Jersey Tea (Ceanothus herbaceus), both of which are fairly widespread on both sides of the Mississippi, and Littleleaf Buckbrush (Ceanothus microphyllus), which is found only in southern Alabama, southern Georgia, and in Florida. Most of the other Ceanothus species are endemic to California. Ceanothus americanus is a shrub found in every state east and nine states west of the Mississippi River. It is Threatened in Maine.

The leaves of the plant can be dried and used to make a tea which was a common substitute for Chinese tea during the American Revolutionary period when imported tea had such high tax rates.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
New Jersey Tea, Wild Snowball, Mountain Sweet, Redroot
ChicoryCichorium intybus
(Introduced)
ChicoryRoadside, McMinn County, TN. Also seen in Hamilton, Bradley, Sequatchie Counties. 06/13/2009Chicory
Cinquefoil Potentilla canadensis*
(Native)
Dwarf Cinquefoil Dwarf Cinquefoil Dwarf Cinquefoil
CinquefoilPotentilla recta*
(Introduced)
Sulfur Cinquefoil, Roughfruit CinquefoilSulfur Cinquefoil is an upright perennial with hairy stems to nearly 3 feet tall, found frequently along roadsides throughout most of the United States. This non-native was introduced from Europe, and is so invasive that despite its beauty is considered an obnoxious weed in Colorado, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, and is found in all but 5 states. Sulfur Cinquefoil is also known as Roughfruit Cinquefoil.Sulfur Cinquefoil, Roughfruit Cinquefoil
CinquefoilPotentilla simplex*
(Native)
Common Cinquefoil, Decumbent Five-finger, Old Field CinquefoilThere is a Potentilla species found in every state in the U.S. except Hawaii, and in every province in Canada. Potentilla simplex is a species of the eastern half of North America, being found from the plains states to the east coast, excluding Florida. This plant, while native to the United States and Canada, can be weedy and is listed in the USDA Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants list.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Common Cinquefoil, Decumbent Five-finger, Old Field Cinquefoil
ClarkiaClarkia pulchella*
(Native)
Pinkfairies, Ragged Robin, Deerhorn Clarkia, Beautiful ClarkiaThe Clarkia genus contains 41 species. While most of the species are found only in California, Clarkia pulchella was found by Meriweather Lewis in what is now Idaho in 1806, and was first described by William Clark in May of that year. It was the first species described in the genus, which was later named for William Clark. It is found in 6 northwestern states and has disjunct populations in 4 eastern states. While the USDA Plants Database shows Pinkfairies as native to these eastern states (OH, MA, CT, VT), these are likely instead a result of plants brought back from the west, since it would have been known prior to 1806 if it was native to those eastern states.

My initial identification of this species was using the excellent book Idaho Mountain Wildflowers by Scott Earle.
Pinkfairies, Ragged Robin,  Deerhorn Clarkia, Beautiful Clarkia
CloverTrifolium repens
(Introduced)
White CloverWalker County, Ga 05/11/2009White Clover
CloverTrifolium pratense
(Introduced)
Red Clover, CowgrassRed Clover is an introduced species which has become naturalized in every state in the United States and all but one Canadian province. While many species that have become so widely naturalized would be considered invasive, this plant has been welcomed due to its economic importance, even becoming the state flower of Vermont. The flowers, leaves and stem are edible, and are sowed for cattle fodder. Red Clover is also good for soil quality, being important in nitrogen fixation. Red Clover, Cowgrass
CloverTrifolium incarnatum
(Introduced)
Crimson Clover, Italian CloverThis introduced clover, considered invasive by some authorities, is found in 43 states. It was brought into North America from Europe as cattle feed. It also can enrich the soil, fixing nitrogen.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Crimson Clover, Italian Clover
CloverTrifolium campestre*
(Introduced)
Low-Hop Clover, Field Clover, Large Hop Clover, Hop TrefoilThis introduced species was originally brought to North America for fodder, but is now found wild in all but six states, and can be weedy and invasive. There are several “hop clover” species so named because the yellow flowers turn brown as they mature, and look like hops.

The original primary image I had on this page was actually not Trifolium campestre. It was of a similar-looking Medicago species. Thanks to Robert Flogaus-Faust for bringing my attention to this incorrect identification.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Low-Hop Clover, Field Clover, Large Hop Clover, Hop Trefoil
CloverTrifolium eriocephalum*
(Native)
Woolly Head Clover, Hairy Head Clover, Cascade Clover, Cusick’s Clover, Martin’s Clover, Fuzzyleaf CloverDicot PerennialMost of the Clovers (Trifolium) with which we are familiar - White, Red, Crimson - are non-native species which were introduced as to improve the soil or for animal fodder. In fact, as of this writing in May, 2014, all four Trifolium species represented on USWildflowers.com are introduced. While there are over 60 Clover species native to the United States, only about a half-dozen are found east of the Mississippi River. Trifolium eriocephalum, Woollyhead Clover, is one of the many western native Clovers. There are a number of varieties (or, since this is a western species, subspecies) of T. eriocephalum which go by common names such as v, Cusick’s Clover, Martin’s Clover, and Fuzzyleaf Clover.

Trifolium longipes is a similar plant with a similar but larger range, extending further east, and a similar habitat. I tentatively have concluded this is Trifolium eriocephalum rather than Trifolium longipes due to the reflexed flowers, described for Trifolium eriocephalum but absent from the description of Trifolium longipes in the Jepson manual.

Found in:
CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA
Woolly Head Clover, Hairy Head Clover, Cascade Clover, Cusick’s Clover, Martin’s Clover, Fuzzyleaf CloverDicot Perennial
Clubmoss Diphasiastrum digitatum*
(Native)
Southern Ground Cedar, Fan Clubmoss, Running Pine, Running Ground CedarThis is a Lycopod rather than a flowering seed plant. Lycopods are among the plants known as fern-allies. Like ferns, it reproduces via spores from the club-like appendages above the plant. Diphasiastrum digitatum is a synonym for the newer scientific name Lycopodium digitatum.

It is listed as "Exploitably Vulnerable" in New York.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Southern Ground Cedar, Fan Clubmoss, Running Pine, Running Ground Cedar
CohoshCaulophyllum thalictroides*
(Native)
Blue CohoshPossible toxicity, especially to pregnant women.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Blue Cohosh
ColumbineAquilegia canadensis*
(Native)
Eastern Red Columbine, Wild ColumbineThis is the only native columbine in the eastern United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Eastern Red Columbine, Wild Columbine
ConeflowerRudbeckia hirta*
(Native)
Black-eyed SusanBlack-eyed Susan is a commonly seen but uncommonly beautiful wildflower found along roadsides and open areas throughout much of the United States, missing only in Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, and Nevada.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Black-eyed Susan
ConeflowerRudbeckia fulgida*
(Native)
Orange ConeflowerThis species, like many members of the 22-species Rudbeckia genus, are frequently called 'black-eyed Susan' because of their nearly identical appearance to R. hirta, the 'true' black-eyed Susan. Orange coneflower, Rudbeckia fulgida, itself is a highly variable species, with as many as 14 varieties. I believe this is R. fulgida var fulgida, due to the shorter, wider ray petals, the minimal hair on the stems, and the distinct winged petioles of the alternating leaves.Orange Coneflower
ConeflowerRudbeckia laciniata*
(Native)
Green-headed Coneflower, Cutleaf ConeflowerCutleaf Coneflower is widely distributed in the United States. Found in 45 states, it is missing only in Alaska, Hawaii, Oregon, Nevada, and California. It is listed as Threatened in Rhode Island, but can be quite commonly found in many of the other states.

Blooms in mid to late summer.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Green-headed Coneflower, Cutleaf Coneflower
ConeflowerRudbeckia triloba*
(Native)
Browneyed Susan, Thin-leaf Coneflower, Three-lobed ConeflowerRudbeckia triloba can be a tall (up to 5' or 6'), many-branched coneflower, with a flower having the appearance of a smaller Blackeyed Susan (R. hirta.)

There are three commonly recognized varieties, with var triloba, so named because some of the lower leaves have 3 lobes, being the most widely distributed. Var ruprestris has somewhat larger flowers, and var pinnatiloba will have 5 to 7 lobes on some of the lower leaves. While the USDA records do not show var pinnatiloba in Georgia, the photos on this page imply otherwise.

Rudbeckia triloba is listed as Endangered in Florida.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV
Browneyed Susan, Thin-leaf Coneflower, Three-lobed Coneflower
Crippled CraneflyTipularia discolor*
(Native)
Tipularia, Cranefly Orchid, Crippled Cranefly OrchidThere are 3 species of Tipularia, with only Tipularia discolor being found in the United States. The other two are Asian plants, 1 found in the Himalayas, and the other in Japan. Tipularia discolor is found in rich forests and oak-pine woods of the eastern part of the United States outside of New England, west to Illinois and south to Texas. It is protected as Threatened, Endangered, or Rare in Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, but can be quite common in parts of its range.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Tipularia, Cranefly Orchid, Crippled Cranefly Orchid
CrossvineBignonia capreolata
(Native)
Cross Vine, Trumpet Flower, CrossvineBignonia capreolata and the Bignoniaceae family are named for French ecclesiastic Jean-Paul Bignon. Bignonia is monotypic - a single species in the genus - although some authorities consider there to be over 20 species in the genus. While there are herbs and shrubs in the Bignoniaceae family, most of the several hundred species in the family are trees or vines. Bignonia capreolata is one of the vines - a liana. Six species in the family are found in the United States, three of which are lianas, three are trees.

Cross Vine gets its common name from the appearance of the cross-section of the vine. This vine usually grows high into trees in swamps and bottomland forest, but can also be found in drier areas in much reduced size.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Cross Vine, Trumpet Flower, Crossvine
CrownbeardVerbesina occidentalis*
(Native)
Yellow CrownbeardMost of the Crownbeards have yellow blossoms, and bloom in mid to late summer. Verbesina occidentalis, like a couple of other Verbesina species - V. alternifolia and V. helianthoides - has a winged stem caused by the continuation of the petioles down along the stem. Yellow Crownbeard is a tall plant, from 3 feet to 10 feet tall.Yellow Crownbeard
CrownbeardVerbesina alternifolia*
(Native)
Wingstem, Yellow IronweedThis is a tall, yellow-blossomed plant found throughout most of the midwest and east outside of New England. It is listed as Threatened in New York.Wingstem, Yellow Ironweed
CrownbeardVerbesina virginica*
(Native)
White Crownbeard, Frostweed, Iceplant, Virginia crownbeardThere are 18 Verbesina species in North America, with at least one species found in most states. The extreme northwest, extreme northeast, and Minnesota don't have a Verbesina species. The composite flowers of White Crownbeard are, as expected based on the name, white. If I'm interpreting the keys in the online version of Flora of North America correctly, the only other white Verbesina in the United States is V. microptera - Texas Crownbeard – which is found only south Texas.

Of the 18 species, 6, including White Crownbeard, may have winged stems: V. alternifolia, V. helianthoides, V. occidentalis, V. heterophylla, V. virginica, V. microptera.
White Crownbeard, Frostweed, Iceplant, Virginia crownbeard
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CymophyllusCymophyllus fraserianus*
(Native)
Fraser's Sedge, Fraser's CymophyllusCymophyllus fraserianus (syn. Cymophyllus fraseri, Carex fraseri, and Carex fraseriana) is a monotypic species - there are no other species in the genus. It is endemic to the southern Appalachian mountains, and is Threatened, Endangered, or of Special Concern in 5 of the 9 states in which it is found (GA, KY, MD, PA, TN.) While it is easily found in parts of its range, overall it is a rare plant.

Found in:
GA, KY, MD, NC, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Fraser's Sedge, Fraser's Cymophyllus
DaisyChrysanthemum leucanthemum
(Introduced)
Oxeye DaisyChrysanthemum leucanthemum is a synonym for Leucanthemum vulgare, which is now the most widely accepted scientific name.

This much-loved flower is an import from its native Europe and Asia, and is naturalized in every state in the United States and almost all of Canada. It is officially considered a noxious weed in Colorado, Montana, Ohio, Washington, and Wyoming, so consider carefully before planting it.
Oxeye Daisy
DandelionTaraxacum officinale
(Introduced)
DandelionDandelion - A variety of Taraxacum officinale (ceratophorum) is native to western parts of the United States, the the variety found in the east (officinale), which is also found in the west, is introduced. Dandelion
DayflowerCommelina communis
(Introduced)
Asiatic Dayflower, Mouse Ears, Dew HerbThe blossom of this member of the Spiderwort family lasts for one day. Introduced from its native Asia, it is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities, having spread widely throughout eastern North America.

Asian Dayflower can be confused with Commelina erecta - Slender Dayflower, a plant native to the United States. This latter plant has paler blue upper petals. The pedicel (flower stem) of Slender Dayflower rises from a spathe which is fused along the lower portion; the spathe is open all the way to the base in the Asiatic Dayflower.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Asiatic Dayflower, Mouse Ears, Dew Herb
DayflowerCommelina virginica*
(Native)
Virginia DayflowerCommelina virginica grows in wet places, especially along swamps, rivers, and where this was photographed, along stream banks. It flowers from mid-summer and on into fall, growing in the southeastern quadrant of the United States as far west as Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas, and as far north as Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. It was historically present in Pennsylvania, but it is reported as being extirpated in that state.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Virginia Dayflower
DaylilyHemerocallis fulva*
(Introduced)
Common Daylily, Tawny Daylily, Orange DaylilyThis plant was introduced from Asia for its excellent garden characteristics, and has become naturalized in 42 of the 50 states. As an escapee, it is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Common Daylily, Tawny Daylily, Orange Daylily
DeadnettleLamium amplexicaule
(Introduced)
Henbit, Henbit DeadnettleThe deadnettles are native to Europe and Asia, but are now widely naturalized in the United States. As with many non-native species which have become widespread in the U.S. Henbit Deadnettle blooms early. It is easily confused with Purple Deadnettle - L. purpureum - which has petioled leaves all the way to the top leaves. The middle and upper leaves of L. amplexicaule do not have petioles. The leaves of Henbit (L. amplexicaule) are also typically smaller than those of Purple Deadnettle.Henbit, Henbit Deadnettle
DeadnettleLamium purpureum*
(Introduced)
Purple Deadnettle, Red Deadnettle, Purple ArchangelThe deadnettles are native to Europe and Asia, but are now widely naturalized in the United States. As with many non-native species which have become widespread in the U.S. Purple Deadnettle blooms early. A similar species is Henbit - L. amplexicaule - The middle and upper leaves of L. amplexicaule do not have petioles while those of L. purpureum have petioles on all leaves, although the upper ones are quite small. The leaves of Henbit (L. amplexicaule) are also typically smaller than those of Purple Deadnettle.Purple Deadnettle, Red Deadnettle, Purple Archangel
Death CamasToxicoscordion paniculatum*
(Native)
Foothill Death Camas, Foothills Deathcamas, Panicled Death Camas, Sand-cornSynonym: Zigadenus paniculatus - a name still used by some authorities. In addition to reclassification out of the Zigadenus genus, it has recently been moved out of Liliaceae and into the Melanthiaceae family. Only a single U.S. plant remains in the Zigadenus genus (Z. glaberrimus - Sandbog Death Camas.) Interestingly, Trillium has also been moved out of Liliaceae and into the Melanthiaceae. I would not have guessed the close relationship between Trillium and other Melanthiaceae species. Toxicoscordion paniculatum is a plant of the western United States, found in dry sagebrush scrub and conifer forests at moderately high elevations - from about 3,000 feet up to 7,000 feet. Due to the rarity of the plant in Arizona, collecting the plant is restricted in that state.

Similar species: Toxicoscordion venenosum, which is a somewhat smaller species, and the inflorescence is a raceme rather than a panicle, although there might be a single branch at the bottom of the inflorescence. My photos of this plant, however, show several branches, indicating a panicle, although the upper half of the inflorescence is racemose. T. venenosum prefers moister soil than does T. paniculatum.

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Foothill Death Camas, Foothills Deathcamas, Panicled Death Camas, Sand-corn
Desert-thornLycium carolinianum*
(Native)
Christmasberry, Carolina Wolfberry, Carolina Desert-thorn, Creeping WolfberryThere are 22 species of Lycium - Desert-thorn - found in the United States, most of which are southwestern species. Lycium carolilnianum is the only native Desert-thorn found east of the Mississippi River.

Lycium carolinianum is a shrub that grows from 6 to 10 feet tall. The branches are sharp-tipped.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, SC, TX
Christmasberry, Carolina Wolfberry, Carolina Desert-thorn, Creeping Wolfberry
DodderCuscuta gronovii
(Native)
Dodder Vine, ScaldweedA parasitic vine that inserts suckers into the stem of its host plants. As the vine matures, its roots die and it gets all of its nourishment from the host.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Dodder Vine, Scaldweed
Dog HobbleLeucothoe fontanesiana*
(Native)
Highland Dog Hobble, Drooping Leucothoe, Fetterbush, DoghobblePrimarily a southeastern species, it is found in 8 states south of the Mason-Dixon line, as well as in New York and Maryland (those disjunct populations may not be native.) Dog Hobble grows in dense thickets along mountain streams. Those shown on this page were near the banks of the Talullah River in north Georgia.

Found in:
AL, GA, KY, MA, MD, NC, NY, SC, TN, VA
Highland Dog Hobble, Drooping Leucothoe, Fetterbush, Doghobble
DogwoodCornus florida*
(Native)
Flowering DogwoodFlowering dogwood, Cornus florida, the dogwood usually referenced simply as dogwood, is a small tree, growing up to 30 feet tall, although it is more typically 15 feet tall, and frequently as wide as it is tall. It brings an early splash of white to the undercover of the spring forest for several weeks in April or May.

Synonym Benthamidia florida. This is apparently a recent DNA-based reclassification from the genus Cornus. I have yet to determine how widely-accepted this classification has become; USDA Plants Database does not list it (Dec 2009.)
Flowering Dogwood
DogwoodCornus foemina*
(Native)
Stiff Dogwood, Southern Swamp Dogwood, Gray DogwoodThis small tree or shrub of the southeastern United States is not as showy as its larger and well-known cousin, Cornus florida - the Flowering Dogwood. However, it is an attractive tree, growing to about 20 tall. Cornus foemina, Stiff Dogwood (synonym: Cornus stricta,) is found in 19 states, as far north as Illinois and Delaware. Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) is found in 31 states, as far north as Maine and Michigan, as well as parts of Canada.

Found in:
AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
Stiff Dogwood, Southern Swamp Dogwood, Gray Dogwood
DogwoodCornus sericea*
(Native)
Red-osier Dogwood, Western Dogwood, American Dogwoodhere are two subspecies of Cornus sericea - occidentalis (Western Dogwood, found in CA, NV, ID, OR, WA, MT, AK) and sericea (Red-osier Dogwood, found in most of the U.S. and Canada, except for 12 of the southeastern states.)

It is a shrub that grows up to about 12’ tall. The stems are reddish from late summer into early fall, being a quite colorful red during winter until they transition to green as spring nears. It grows primarily in wet habitats. The plant I photographed was growing within the flood zone of a steep mountain creek near the bottom of the Kleinschmidt Grade in Adams County, Idaho.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Red-osier Dogwood, Western Dogwood, American Dogwood
DogwoodCornus canadensis*
(Native)
Bunchberry, Bunchberry Dogwood, Dwarf Dogwood, Canadian Bunchberry, Dwarf Cornel, Creeping DogwoodBunchberry is found throughout most of Canada and the northern tier of states in the United States, and it pushes south in the mountain regions, all the way to Virginia in the east and to New Mexico in the west. It prefers cool, acidic soils and cannot survive if the soil gets warmer than 65 degrees Fahrenheit. It is listed as threatened or endangered in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, and Ohio. The berries are reported to be edible, if not especially tasty on their own.

My apology for these photos which do not do the plant justice. In northern Minnesota in September when these photos were taken you do not expect either the plant to be blooming, and this year the berries had already dropped. Additionally, the plant thrives in moist forests, and 2012 was a year of drought.

Found in:
AK, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Bunchberry, Bunchberry Dogwood, Dwarf Dogwood, Canadian Bunchberry, Dwarf Cornel, Creeping Dogwood
Dutchman's BreechesDicentra cucullaria*
(Native)
Dutchman's BreechesDutchman's Breeches is a lovely spring wildflower. The blossoms don't last long.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Dutchman's Breeches
Dwarf DandelionKrigia biflora
(Native)
Two-flower Cynthia, Twoflower Dwarfdandelionaka twoflower dwarfdandelion. Grundy County, TN, 05/25/2008Two-flower Cynthia, Twoflower Dwarfdandelion
Dwarf DandelionKrigia dandelion*
(Native)
Potato Dandelion, Potato Dwarfdandelion, Colonial Dwarf-dandelionPlants in the Krigia genus are also known as Dwarf Dandelion (or Dwarfdandelion) because of the obvious similarity of their flower to the common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinal.) There are 7 Krigia species, all native only to North America. Krigia dandelion grows in similar locations to Taraxacum officinal - woodlands, roadsides, lawns, disturbed areas, and waste areas, forming stoloniferous colonies. These photos are from a yard that I have selectively mowed, avoiding mowing native wildflowers until they have gone to seed.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
Potato Dandelion, Potato Dwarfdandelion, Colonial Dwarf-dandelion
ElderberrySambucus nigra ssp. canadensis*
(Native)
Common Elderberry, American Elderberry, American Black ElderberryThis shrub grows up to 10 feet tall and has many stems, forming dense thickets. The leaves are pinnate, with usually 7, occasionally 5, and even more occasionally 9 lanceolate, serrated leaflets. The plant has large cymes of small white flowers which will produce dark purple to black berries which can be used in jams and to make wine. The flowers, dried, can be used to make a tea. The unripe berries, the stems, and the leaves may be poisonous.

This is the more widespread subspecies of the Black Elderberry, being found in all but 5 of the lower 48 states. It is also in Hawaii, but as an introduced species. It was formerly classified as the separate species Sambucus canadensis. Another subspecies, S. nigra ssp.cerulea (formerly S. caerulea) is known as the Blue Elderberry, and has bluish berries. Blue Elderberry is found in much of the western half of the United States

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Common Elderberry, American Elderberry, American Black Elderberry
ElderberrySambucus nigra ssp. cerulea*
(Native)
Western Blue Elder, Blue ElderberryWestern Blue Elder is a shrub or small tree that grows up to 25 feet tall and may have many stems, forming dense thickets. The leaves are pinnate, with usually 3 to 9 lanceolate, serrated leaflets. The plant has large cymes of small white flowers which will produce blue berries in late summer which can be used in jams and to make wine, although the raw berries in large quantities may be poisonous. The unripe berries, the stems, and the leaves may be poisonous.

It was formerly classified as the separate species Sambucus cerulea. Another subspecies, S. nigra ssp. canadensis (formerly S. canadensis, and these plants are still treated as separate species in the esteemed Weakley's Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States) is known as the Black Elderberry. Recent classification changes have also moved the genus Sambucus, along with Viburnum, out of the Honeysuckle Family and into the Muskroot Family.

This subspecies of the Sambucus nigra is not as widespread as ssp. canadensis, Black Elderberry. Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea is found in 12 western states. The color of the berries is the most sure way to tell the difference if you are in the 7 states where you may find either species - Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea may be taller - it can reach 25 feet in height - and may have as few as 3 leaflets, while Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis usually is rarely taller than 10 feet, and will usually have a minimum of 5 leaflets.

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, TX, UT, WA, WY
Western Blue Elder, Blue Elderberry
Elephant's FootElephantopus carolinianus*
(Native)
Carolina Elephant's foot, Leafy Elephantfoot This plant's alternating leaves arise along an unevenly pubescent stem. The plant branches at leaf axils usually after four non-branching leaf nodes. The blossom clusters, which arise from three leafy bracts, terminate the stems. The white to pale lavender blossoms are very interesting in that they usually give the appearance of having a circle of many rays, but these apparently lobes of the corolla of several disk flowers.

E. carolinianus is listed as endangered in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (USDA.)

Synonyms: Elephantopus flexuosus, Elephantopus violaceus, Elephantopus glaber
Carolina Elephant's foot, Leafy Elephantfoot
EryngoEryngium yuccifolium*
(Native)
Rattlesnake Master, Button Eryngo, Button Snakeroot, Yuccaleaf EryngoThere are about 250 species of Eryngium in the world, with about 35 in the United States. While most are native to the U.S., several are introduced. It appears that all Eryngium found in the wild in Canada are introduced. While more Eryngium species are found in the western half of the country, the eastern Eryngium yuccifolium is the most widely distributed species of the genus in the United States (it is not found in Canada.)

As with many plants, Eryngium yuccifolium was used (and may continue to be used) by native Americans for medicinal purposes, with the roots being used to relieve toothaches and as a remedy for bladder and kidney problems, and as indicated by one of its common names, as a treatment for snakebite, especially that of the rattlesnake.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI
Rattlesnake Master, Button Eryngo, Button Snakeroot, Yuccaleaf Eryngo
Evening PrimroseOenothera speciosa
(Native)
Pink Ladies, Showy Evening Primrose, Pink PrimroseWhile the USDA Plants Database shows Oenothera speciosa as native to 27 of the lower 48 states, it is apparently native only to the central part of the United States. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center mentions a native status in Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. It apparently has been introduced and naturalized in the other 22 states where it is found. While it is an attractive plant with a long bloom season, use caution because it can spread vigorously. Pink Ladies, Showy Evening Primrose, Pink Primrose
Evening PrimroseOenothera biennis*
(Native)
Common Evening Primrose, Evening Star, Sun DropCommon Evening Primrose is found in all but 7 states. From Carol in Virginia: "It booms just at dusk and you can actually see the petals move as it opens... All the grandchildren love to gather around a plant and guess which one will open next."

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Common Evening Primrose, Evening Star, Sun Drop
Evening PrimroseOenothera pallida*
(Native)
Pale Evening Primrose, White Evening Primrose, Pale-Stemmed Evening PrimroseWhile there are Oenothera species in every state except for Alaska (also in all of Canada except Yukon), Oenothera pallida is a western species, being found in 11 western states, and in British Columbia. Of the few pink or white Oenothera species found in Idaho, where these photos were taken, the others have leaf structures/shapes that are significantly different. It can bloom from mid-spring on well into the fall.

Found in:
AZ, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, TX, UT, WA, WY
Pale Evening Primrose, White Evening Primrose, Pale-Stemmed Evening Primrose
EyelashweedBlepharipappus scaber*
(Native)
Rough Eyelashweed, Blepharipappus, Rough Blepharipappus Blepharipappus scaber is the only species in the genus. The plant grows from 4 to 12 inches tall and is found in dry, open areas in five western states. This specimen was along a hillside at about 3,500' - 4000' in the Boise Foothills.

Found in:
CA, ID, NV, OR, WA
Rough Eyelashweed, Blepharipappus, Rough Blepharipappus
Fairy SlipperCalypso bulbosa*
(Native)
Calypso Orchid, Fairy Slipper, Venus Slipper, Angel SlipperCalypso bulbosa is the only species in the genus, but there are two varieties. Var. occidentalis, the more western variety (as indicated by the varietal name) has whitish or clear lip bristles. It is found only in Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho, and is the variety shown here. Var. americana is the more easterly variety, being found in Alaska and Canada, and from Montana east along the Canadian border states all the way east to Maine (except, oddly, North Dakota; but it is found in South Dakota. It is also found in the Rocky Mountain states down through Arizona. The eastern variety has more lip bristles, and they are yellow. Calypso bulbosa is Threatened or Endangered in Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, and Wisconsin. It is also protected in Arizona.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, ME, MI, MN, MT, NH, NM, NY, OR, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY
Calypso Orchid, Fairy Slipper, Venus Slipper, Angel Slipper
FairybellsDisporum lanuginosum*
(Native)
Yellow Fairybells, Yellow MandarinDisporum lanuginosum is a synonym of Prosartes lanuginosa. The five species of the genus Disporum that are in North America have recently been reclassified into a separate genus - Prosartes - and moved into the Liliaceae family out of the Colchicaceae family. I continue to list this species as D. lanuginosum because most publications and websites I find still do so as well.

Yellow Fairybells is an attractive plant growing to 36" tall, with alternating, glossy green entire leaves which are ovate or lanceolate and have prominent parallel veins.
Yellow Fairybells, Yellow Mandarin
FairywandChamaelirium luteum*
(Native)
Fairy Wand, Devil’s Bit, False Unicorn Root, Blazing Star, Grubroot, Squirrel Tail, Rattlesnake-rootChamaelirium luteum is a dioecious, monotypic species of wet meadows and deciduous woods in the eastern part of the United States. It is officially listed as Endangered in Connecticut, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Threatened in New York. It is variable listed in the following families: Liliaceae – the Lily family, Melanthiaceae – the False-Hellebore Family, or Helondiadaceae - the Swamp-pink Family, the latter ones being created by the redistribution of Liliaceae. Since ITIS places it in Melanthiaceae, and based on the inflorescence it seems suitable in that family, I will also include it there.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Fairy Wand, Devil’s Bit, False Unicorn Root, Blazing Star, Grubroot, Squirrel Tail, Rattlesnake-root
False FoxgloveAgalinis tenuifolia*
(Native)
Slender Gerardia, Slenderleaf False FoxgloveFound in most of the eastern 2/3 of the United States, it is a plant of "Special Concern" in Rhode Island. It was formerly classified as Gerardia purpurea.

This branching plant may be found in sprawling colonies. It has dark green to purple leaves and stems to about 2-feet tall, with small pink to purple blossoms. Similar species found in the region (from Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians) and why I don't think this is that species:
  • Agalinis purpurea (Smooth Purple Gerardia) - Although the specimen photographed on this page have yellow in the throat as does A. purpurea, the pedicels of A. purpurea are shorter, and that species does not exhibit the upper corolla lip extending over the stamens. While the specimens I photographed for this page have hairy stamens, I detected no hair in the corolla tube itself - a characteristic of A. purpurea.
  • Agalinis fasciculata (Fascicled Purple Gerardia) – This species is similar to A. purpurea, but also has another feature missing from A. tenuifolia - clusters of fascicles (tiny leaves) in many of the leaf axils.
  • Agalinis gattingeri (Gattinger's Gerardia) - A. gattingeri has pale green flowering branches, and net-veined calyx tube.
  • Agalinis auriculata (Earleaf False Foxglove) - The leaves of A. auriculata are wide, toothed, and sometimes lobed.


Update 07/20/2012: In researching another Agalinis species, I found that ITIS lists this genus in Orobanchaceae – the Broom-rape family, so I have updated this record, moving it out of the former classification within Scrophulariaceae – the Figwort family.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Slender Gerardia, Slenderleaf False Foxglove
False garlicNothoscordum bivalve*
(Native)
False Garlic, CrowpoisonNothoscordum bivalve was formerly classified in the lily family, but has recently been moved to the Amaryllis family. It does not have the oniony-smell of true garlics and onions. It is classified as Rare in Indiana, and as Threatened in Ohio.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, NE, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
False Garlic, Crowpoison
False IndigoAmorpha fruticosa*
(Native)
Indigobush, False Indigo Bush, Desert False Indigo, Tall Indigo-bushAmorpha fruticosa is the most widely distributed of the 14 or 15 False Indigo species found in the United States. It is missing in Alaska, Hawaii, Montana, and Nevada. While it is native in most places where it is found, it is classified as a noxious weed in Washington state, and is naturalized in Oregon, Idaho, and Utah. It is also not native to New England and the parts of the upper Atlantic Seaboard where it is found.

Indigobush is a shrub that grows up to 10 feet tall along ponds, streams, rivers, and roadsides. The majority of foliage is in the upper third of the plant.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Indigobush, False Indigo Bush, Desert False Indigo, Tall Indigo-bush
False-buckwheatFallopia japonica*
(Introduced)
Japanese Knotweed, Crimson Beauty, Mexican bamboo, Japanese Fleece Flower, ReynoutriaJapanese Knotweed is a highly invasive species native to Asia, introduced as an ornamental in the United States in the 1800s. It reproduces vegetatively from its rhizomes, so removing it and discarding the remains propagate rather than limit the plant. In England it is classified as Controlled Waste and must be burned or transported to a licensed disposal site; it is illegal to include Japanese Knotweed in household garbage. Reportedly UK mortgage lenders are refusing to make loans on properties where the plant is found until remediation plans are made. In the United States, it is officially considered a noxious weed in Alabama, California, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington State.

Fallopia japonica was formerly included in Polygonum (along with the other 11 members of the genus Fallopia), and is still classified as Polygonum cuspidatum in many publications. But some authorities, based on molecular study as well as erect stems, classify Japanese Knotweed as Reynoutria japonica. ITIS lists it in Fallopia; Weakley lists it in Reynoutria; USDA lists it in Polygonum.

Found in:
AK, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Japanese Knotweed, Crimson Beauty, Mexican bamboo, Japanese Fleece Flower, Reynoutria
FawnlilyErythronium americanum*
(Native)
Trout Lily, Yellow Dogtooth Violet, Yellow Adder's Tongue, Yellow Trout-LilyTrout lily is one of the early spring wildflowers.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Trout Lily, Yellow Dogtooth Violet, Yellow Adder's Tongue, Yellow Trout-Lily
FawnlilyErythronium grandiflorum
(Native)
Yellow Avalanche Lily, Glacier LilyYellow Avalanche Lily can be found in subalpine mountain meadows, slopes, and in clearings or thinly forested areas. According to Wikipedia, the roots are a preferred food of the grizzly bear. Of the 24 species of Erythronium found in the United States, Erythronium grandiflorum is the only one found in Idaho, according to the USDA Plants Database. It is a native of 9 western states (CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, OR, UT, WA, WY.)Yellow Avalanche Lily, Glacier Lily
Fern Osmunda cinnamomea
(Native)
Cinnamon Fern Cinnamon Fern Cinnamon Fern
FiddleneckAmsinckia menziesii*
(Native)
Common Fiddleneck, Menzie's Fiddleneck, Rancher's FiddleneckThere are 10 species in the Amsinckia (Fiddleneck) genus in the United States, most of which are western species. Amsinckia menziesii, while widespread in the western half of the U.S., is also found in a number of states in the mid-west and east. There are two varieties, and var. intermedia - Common Fiddleneck – is the more widely distributed and commonly found one. While this is a plant native to the United States, it is probably introduced in Alaska, Hawaii.

This is considered a weed by ranchers because cattle won't eat it and it can crowd out other forage plants.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, HI, ID, IL, MA, ME, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NV, NY, OR, PA, SC, TX, UT, VA, WA, WY
Common Fiddleneck, Menzie's Fiddleneck, Rancher's Fiddleneck
FireweedChamerion angustifolium*
(Native)
Fireweed, Narrow-leaf fireweed, Willow Herb, Rosebay Willow Herb, Blooming SallyChamerion – Fireweed - has two species – C. angustifolium and C. latifolium, the latter being Dwarf Fireweed, a much shorter plant, with distribution in the US being primarily in the west. C. angustifolium on may grow to 10 feet tall, and one of the two subspecies can be found in every state except for 12 states in the southeastern quadrant of the United States. C. angustifolium ssp. angustifolium is a more northern plant than ssp. circumvagum, with ssp. angustifolium being found only in the northern counties of MN, in Washington State, and in the mountainous states of Montana, Colorado, and Wyoming. It is also found in all of the Canadian provinces.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Fireweed, Narrow-leaf fireweed, Willow Herb, Rosebay Willow Herb, Blooming Sally
FlatsedgeCyperus strigosus*
(Native)
False Nutsedge, Strawcolored Flatsedge, Strawcolor NutgrassSedges (and grasses) are notoriously difficult to identify to the species. On top of that, Cyperus is a HUGE genus, with around 600 species in the world, and over 90 (most native) in North America. Add to that my status as a rank amateur, and it is with great trepidation that I approach this identification. Fortunately Cyperus strigosus is one of the more common sedge species, so at least that increases the odds that I have this identification correct.

Alaska is the only state with no Cyperus species. Several species are very widely distributed, with 7 species being found in at least 44 states, based on USDA maps. Cyperus strigosus is one of those 7 species. It is missing only from Alaska and Hawaii, plus four great plains states - Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and North Dakota.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA,CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
False Nutsedge, Strawcolored Flatsedge, Strawcolor Nutgrass
FlaxLinum lewisii
(Native)
Wild Blue Flax, Lewis Flax, Prairie FlaxWild Blue Flax is found in most of the western 2/3 of the United States. There are three recognized varieties found in North America; one found only in the United States, one found only in Canada, and a third found in both the United States and Canada - var. lewisii.

A very similar species is the non-native Linum perenne, an import from Europe, which is found in scatterings across the United States. Some authorities treat the native L. lewisii as a subspecies of L. perenne - my guess is that the treatment may depend on which side of the Atlantic Ocean you call home. Many authorities call Linum perenne var lewisii a synonym of Linum lewisii. Cultivated flax, L. usitatissimum, is also similar in appearance.
Wild Blue Flax, Lewis Flax, Prairie Flax
FleabaneErigeron annuus*
(Native)
Eastern daisy fleabaneThere are 191 species in the Erigeron genus, with some species being found in only a single state. Eastern Daisy Fleabane is one of the more widespread species, found in all but 7 states. It is a native plant in both the continental United States and in Canada.

Erigeron anuus is generally 2 to 3 feet tall, branching with many white-rayed, yellow-centered blossoms. It blooms from mid- to late spring on through most of the summer months. It is differentiated from the earlier blooming Philadelphia Fleabane (E. philadelphicus) by narrower leaves which do not clasp the stem, and is differentiated from similar Prairie Fleabane (aka Lesser Daisy Fleabane - E. strigosus) by having stems which are distinctly hairy, and by usually having toothed leaves.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Eastern daisy fleabane
FleabaneErigeron philadelphicus*
(Native)
Philadelphia FleabaneClasping leaves is a key identifier for this early blooming fleabane.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Philadelphia Fleabane
FleabaneErigeron strigosus*
(Native)
Prairie Fleabane, Lesser Daisy FleabaneThere are 191 species in the Erigeron genus, with some species being found in only a single state. Prairie Fleabane is one of the more widespread species, found in all but 6 states. It is a native plant in both the continental United States and in Canada.

Erigeron strigosus is generally 2 to 3 feet tall, branching with many white-rayed, yellow-centered blossoms. It blooms from mid- to late spring on through most of the summer months. It is differentiated from the earlier blooming Philadelphia Fleabane (E. Philadelphicus) by narrower leaves which do not clasp the stem. It is differentiated from similar Eastern Daisy Fleabane (E. Annuus) by being less hairy, and rarely having toothed leaves. It is also less leafy than Eastern Daisy Fleabane.
Prairie Fleabane, Lesser Daisy Fleabane
FleabaneErigeron pulchellus*
(Native)
Robin's PlantainRobin's Plantain is one of the shorter of the eastern fleabanes, growing from 8 to 24 inches tall, but to me it is one of the prettier of the eastern Erigeron species. It is found in 34 of the easternmost states in the United States, and in much of the eastern half of Canada.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Robin's Plantain
FleabaneErigeron bloomeri*
(Native)
Scabland Fleabane, Bloomer's Daisy, Bloomer's FleabaneAlthough Scabland Fleabane is the most commonly used common name, I prefer another of the plant's common names - Bloomer's Daisy. The Bloomer's Daisy common name probably won't gain much traction in this digital age, where an Internet search for "Bloomer's Daisy" provides more results for childrens flowered underwear than for this interesting plant. There are three varieties of Erigeron bloomeri (some authorities only recognize two); var. bloomeri has the widest distribution and is the only variety found in Idaho, where these photographs were made.

Erigeron itself is a large and widespread genus, with the USDA Plants Database listing 193 species in North America. Each state of the United States, as well as each territory in Canada, has at least one species of Fleabane present. Most of these are native to the continent, as is the species presented here, Erigeron bloomeri. This species is named for California botanist Hiram G. Bloomer (1819-1874) who collected the plant in Nevada.

There are at least three other members of Erigeron which have rayless, yellow blossoms:
  • E. anaphactis - Rayless Shaggy Fleabane - “Shaggy” because it is quite obviously hairy; bristly hairy.
  • E. reductus - California Rayless Fleabane - is another yellow, rayless Fleabane, found only in California, as implied by its common name. It has linear stem leaves; the other yellow rayless fleabanes do not have stem leaves.
  • E. chrysopsidis var austiniae (syn. E. austiniae) - Sagebrush Fleabane - is a variety of a yellow fleabane which will have no rays or perhaps only vestigial rays. The other varieties of that species have ray flowers. While not as hairy as Rayless Shaggy Fleabane, Sagebrush Fleabane is more apparently hairy than Scabland Fleabane.

  • Found in:
    CA, ID, NV, OR, UT, WA
Scabland Fleabane, Bloomer's Daisy, Bloomer's Fleabane
FluxweedIsanthus brachiatus*
(Native)
False Pennyroyal, FluxweedThis is one of many plants undergoing changes in classification. According to my research, it was originally considered to be part of Trichostema (Linnaeus, 1737), subsequently became the sole member of the Isanthus genus (Michaux, 1803), in 1978 was sent over to Trichostema for a while (Lewis), and recently some authorities have moved it back to Isanthus as the only species in that genus. Of course, during all of this scientific debate, those of us classified as commoners would have continued to call it whatever we called it previously – be it False Pennyroyal or Fluxweed, or whatever other common name was applied locally. The Trichostema genus members are commonly known as Bluecurls.

False Pennyroyal is listed as Special Concern, Endangered, or Threatened in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey. It is rare in the remaining New England states where it can be found at all.

This plant was pointed out and identified for me by Jay Clark, author of Wildflowers of Pigeon Mountain on a walk through a cedar glade at the foot of Pigeon Mountain in Walker County, Ga in late September.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CT, DC, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
False Pennyroyal, Fluxweed
Fly PoisonAmianthium muscitoxicum*
(Native)
Fly Poison, Stagger GrassAmianthium muscaetoxicum is monotypic – this is the only species in the genus, although it is closely related to Death Camas (Toxicoscordion, Stenanthium, Zigadenus, Anticlea), from which it can be distinguished by the brown bracts within the inflorescence, and by having a denser cluster of basal leaves. These genera have been recently moved out of Liliaceae and into the Melanthiaceae – False-Hellebore – family

The species epithet translates to Fly Poison, indicative of the poisonous nature of the plant. All parts are poisonous. The bulb, which is especially poisonous, is a natural insecticide, but in spite of that, some butterflies eat the nectar of the plant without adverse effect. The alternate common name of Stagger Grass is because cattle which eat the plant will stagger, and then perhaps die, from the effects of the poison.

Amianthium muscaetoxicum is an alternate spelling of the scientific name which is not accepted by most authorities. Zigadenus muscitoxicus is a synonym, indicating the close relationship to the genus by which most Death Camas have been classified until recently.

It is Threatened in Kentucky.

Found in:
AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Fly Poison, Stagger Grass
Foamflower Tiarella cordifolia *
(Native)
Heartleaf Foamflower, False MiterwortHeartleaf Foamflower has several lobed basal leaves rising on tall stalks. The separate flower stems may rise from last years leaves before the new leaves show up, but the new leaves will show up before blooming.

According to Guido Mase of The Vermont Center for Integrative Herbalism,"Leaves rich in saponins, tea used for washing, chest congestion."

Found in:
AL, CT, GA, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Heartleaf Foamflower, False Miterwort
FogfruitPhyla lanceolata*
(Native)
Fogfruit, Lanceleaf Fogfruit, Northern FogfruitWidely distributed. One of the common names is Northern Fogfruit, not because this is not commonly found in the south, but because it is the only Phyla species found commonly in northern states. It is found in wet (frequently foggy) areas – bottom lands, shores of creeks and lakes, and marshes.

It is listed as Endangered in New Jersey, and Rare in Pennsylvania.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI, WV
Fogfruit, Lanceleaf Fogfruit, Northern Fogfruit
Fringed OrchidPlatanthera ciliaris*
(Native)
Yellow Fringed Orchid, Orange Fringed OrchidThe Yellow Fringed Orchid is more frequently a bright orange than yellow. It shares the feature of being either orange or yellow with similar species Platanthera cristata - the Yellow Crested Orchid - which has a much shorter spur than P. ciliaris. The spur of Platanthera ciliaris is longer than the flower, frequently extending past the ovary/pedicel combination. It blooms in mid-summer in a variety of locations. These photographs were taken along the Blue Ridge Parkway near Waynesville, NC.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Yellow Fringed Orchid, Orange Fringed Orchid
Fringed OrchidPlatanthera psycodes*
(Native)
Small Purple Fringed Orchid, Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid, Lesser Purple Fringed Bog-orchidThere are over 30 species of Platanthera (Fringed Orchid, although some are not fringed) in North America, with at least one species in every state in the United States and every province in Canada. Platanthera psycodes is an eastern species, being found from Minnesota eastward and south to Tennessee and Georgia. It is a plant of moist forests, seepages, and bogs.

Found in:
CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Small Purple Fringed Orchid, Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid, Lesser Purple Fringed Bog-orchid
FritillariaFritillaria pudica*
(Native)
Yellowbells, Yellow Fritillary, Yellow Missionbells, Gold BellThis is one of the 3 Fritillaria species found in Idaho out of the 23 total Fritillaria species found in the United States. All of thesea are found only in the western half of the US and Canada. It is a small plant, growing to usually less than a foot tall.Yellowbells, Yellow Fritillary, Yellow Missionbells,  Gold Bell
fungiClavariaCoral fungusMaybe genus Clavaria, perhaps C. zollingeri. OK, this is a fungus, not a wildflower, but I like it so it's here.Coral fungus
GalaxGalax urceolata*
(Native)
Beetleweed, Galax, Wandplant, Wandflower, ColtsfootGalax urceolata is monotypic - the only species in the genus. It is a member of the Diapensiaceae family, which in itself is rather small, having only around 14 species. Of these, 6 are found in North America, with the others in Europe and Asia.

While Galax is native to the southeastern United States, disjunct populations that found in New York and Massachusetts are likely not native; probably naturalized garden escapees.

Found in:
AL, GA, KY, MA, NC, NY, OH, SC, TN, VA, WV
Beetleweed, Galax, Wandplant, Wandflower, Coltsfoot
GentianGentiana saponaria
(Native)
Soapwort Gentian, HarvestbellsFannin County GA Nov 10 2008 just outside Cohutta Wilderness. G saponaria has paler flowers than G. clausa, and these had pretty deep blue flowers, but USDA database doesn't show G. clausa this far south, and the leaves of G. clausa seem to be generally wider than these. This is also similar to G. linearis, but USDA database also does not show this in Georgia. Both G. clausa and G. linearis are close enough that they are possibles.Soapwort Gentian, Harvestbells
GentianGentiana villosa*
(Native)
Pale Gentian, Striped Gentian, Sampsons SnakerootAlthough at least one Gentiana species is found in every state in the United States (as well as most of Canada), Gentian villosa is found only in the southeastern quadrant of the country, as far north as Indiana, Ohio New York and New Jersey. It is Endangered in Indiana, Maryland, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.

Pale Gentian, also known as Striped Gentian, is a plant of forests and open woods, and as with many Gentians, blooms from late August into November.

Found in:
AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, IN, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Pale Gentian, Striped Gentian, Sampsons Snakeroot
GeraniumGeranium maculatum*
(Native)
Wild GeraniumAll geraniums have a "multiples of 5" consistency - 5 petals, 5 sepals, 10 stamens, and a 5-part pistil. G. maculatum is widely-distributed in the eastern United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Wild Geranium
GeraniumGeranium viscosissimum*
(Native)
Sticky Purple GeraniumGeranium viscosissimum has pink petals with deep red or purple veins.

Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Sticky Purple Geranium
GeraniumGeranium dissectum*
(Introduced)
Cutleaf Geranium, Cut-leaved CranesbillA native of Europe, Cutleaf Geranium is a weedy plant is found in 29 states. It grows to about 2 feet tall – or this may be considered 2 feet long, since it is often prone. The stem is densely pubescent - covered with short hairs, as is the rest of the plant. The petioled leaves are alternate and deeply, palmately lobed. The main lobes of the lower leaves are also lobed. The lobes of the lower leaves are usually much broader than on the upper leaves.

A similar species is the United States native Carolina Geranium (Geranium carolinianum), except Carolina Geranium has paler pink – almost white – blossoms, and the upper leaf lobes are broader.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, GA, HI, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WV
Cutleaf Geranium, Cut-leaved Cranesbill
GeraniumGeranium carolinianum*
(Native)
Carolina Geranium, Carolina CranesbillGeranium carolinianum is interesting in that while is is considered weedy or invasive in many parts of the country, it is an Endangered or Threatened species in New Hampshire and New York, so may have some legally protected status there. Somewhat supporting the invasive (although native to the U.S.) opinion, it is found in disturbed areas in every state in the lower 48 except Colorado (frankly, it wouldn surprise me if it's not also there), and is also found in most of Canada. Apparently a naturalized population has not yet been found in Hawaii and Alaska.

The most obvious difference between G. carolinianum and the non-native G. dissectum (Cutleaf Geranium) is the color of the blossom, although other differences are noted below.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Carolina Geranium, Carolina Cranesbill
GermanderTeucrium canadense*
(Native)
American Germander, Wood Sage, Canada GermanderWhile there may be as many as 250 species of Germander in the world, only eight are found in North America, with just five of those being native to the continent. The non-native species have limited distribution, as do four of the native species. American Germander - Teucrium canadense, however, is widely distributed on the continent, being found in each of the lower 48 states as well as most of Canada. This is indicative of its weedy nature, and it is considered invasive by some weed authorities.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
American Germander, Wood Sage, Canada Germander
GlechomaGlechoma hederacea
(Introduced)
Ground Ivy, Gill-over-the-ground, Haymaids, Creeping CharlieThis introduced plant has small attractive, colorful blossoms, but it is quite invasive, pushing out other weed plants. It is found in all but 4 of our states.

Its name implies its growth pattern, with the stems trailing along the ground. The stems may be up to 18 inches long, and form roots at the nodes. Large mats of the plant may form. Over the years I have learned to hate this plant in spite of its lovely little flowers.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Ground Ivy, Gill-over-the-ground, Haymaids, Creeping Charlie
Goat's beardAstilbe biternata
(Native)
Appalachian False Goat's Beard, False Goatsbeard, Astilbe biternata is one of two native Astilbe species in North America. Astilbe crenatiloba, as indicated by the common name Roan Mountain False Goat’s Beard, has been found only in Carter County, TN on Roan Mountain. It may be extinct because there appear to be no reports of it since the original collection in 1885. Flora of North America indicates that it might have been a local variety rather than a separate species. A. crenatiloba had crenate, rounded teeth rather than the sharp, serrate teeth of Astilbe biternata. There is also an introduced escapee species, Astilbe japonica which may have established itself in the wild in New York and Rhode Island.

Astilbe biternata is a plant of mountain cove forests in the Appalachians from Maryland and Virginia south to Georgia, although some authorities do not list its presence in Maryland.

Found in:
GA, KY, MD, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV
Appalachian False Goat's Beard, False Goatsbeard,
GoatsbeardTragopogon dubius*
(Introduced)
Yellow Salsify, Yellow Goatsbeard, Western Salsify, Wild OysterplantFound in 45 states – all but Hawaii, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and South Carolina – Yellow Salsify is considered an invasive weed in many areas, although apparently with little negative economic impact. The taproot is edible, and is reported to be the reason it was imported into the United States. The reported flavor is reminiscent of oysters, giving it the Wild Oysterplant common name. It was grown in Thomas Jefferson's garden, although from what I can find it was a different Tragopogon species - T. porrifolius.

Found in:
AK, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Yellow Salsify, Yellow Goatsbeard, Western Salsify, Wild Oysterplant
GoatsbeardAruncus dioicus*
(Native)
Goatsbeard, Eastern Goatsbeard, Bride’s FeathersAruncus dioicus is a tall plant with attractive inflorescence and foliage which grows in shady areas of moist woodland borders. While some authorities recognize up to three additional Asian species, most authorities consider Aruncus dioicus to be the only species in genus. There are four varieties in the United States, some of which have previously also been considered separate species:
  • var. acuminatus, found on the west coast from northern California north to Alaska, as well as western Canada.
  • var. dioicus, found in the eastern United States from Maine south to Georgia and west to Wisconsin and Mississippi
  • var. pubescens, also an eastern species found in nine states in the East and Midwest. There is some discussion that this should not be maintained as a separate variety from var. dioicus.
  • var. vulgaris, a species introduced from Europe and now naturalized in 3 states.


Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CA, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, TN, VA, WA, WI, WV
Goatsbeard, Eastern Goatsbeard, Bride’s Feathers
GoldenasterChrysopsis mariana*
(Native)
Maryland Golden Astersynonym: Heterotheca mariana
Maryland Golden Aster grows to about 2.5 feet tall. Stem l eaves are alternate, but there may be a basal rosette of petioled leaves. Long hairs on the stems and to an extent on the leaves make the plant quite silky, becoming less so as the plant matures, and is less hairy in the lower part. Blooms mid-summer thru fall. Endangered or Threatened in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. In Pennsylvania there are only about 10 remaining populations in the very southeastern part of the state.

Found in:
AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Maryland Golden Aster
Goldenaster - FalseHeterotheca subaxillaris*
(Native)
Camphorweed, Camphor Weed, False GoldenasterSynonym: Chrysopsis scabra Some authorities consider Heterotheca subaxillaris to be weedy and/or invasive. Apparently this is with good reason, as the plant is quite variable, even to the point that several authorities have considered it to be several separate species rather than a single species with multiple varieties. The different varieties have a great deal of tolerance to different conditions, allow it to thrive and force out other plants when conditions are difficult. Those that take the position of multiple species (Heterotheca latifolia, Heterotheca psammophila, and Heterotheca subaxillaris) also typically indicate that this H. subaxillaris has a native range limited to the Southeast. There have been studies that have indicated that when planted in similar environments, the morphological differences used to justify species separation are not reliable.

It looks similar to other Heterotheca and Chrysopsis species, but if you handle the plant, especially broken leaves, you'll be able to identify it by the distinct camphor-like aroma (some would call is a smell rather than an aroma.)

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA
Camphorweed, Camphor Weed, False Goldenaster
GoldenbannerThermopsis fraxinifolia
(Native)
Ashleaf GoldenbannerAshleaf Goldenbanner, Polk County, TN May 30, 2004Ashleaf Goldenbanner
GoldenbannerThermopsis montana*
(Native)
Mountain Goldenbanner, Mountain Thermopsis, False Lupin, Golden pea, BuckbeanThermopsis montana is one of 10 Thermopsis species in the United States, although some authorities include it in the very similar T. rhombifolia (Prairie Thermopsis.) T. montana is the more western of these two species, with Montana being the only state having both species.

Thermopsis gracilis is another similar species which is found in the same range in the western United States. Based on my research it may be a less common species, and may be more branching. Since I'm no expert, it is possible that this is T. gracilis rather than T. montana.

Found in:
AZ, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Mountain Goldenbanner, Mountain Thermopsis, False Lupin, Golden pea, Buckbean
GoldenrodSolidago flexicaulis*
(Native)
Zigzag Goldenrod, Broadleaf GoldenrodOne of the woodland goldenrods. ‘Zigzag’ common name, and probably the species name ‘flexicaulis’ come from the slight change in direction the stem takes at many of the leaf nodes, especially the upper ones. Solidago flexicaulis is listed as Threatened in Rhode Island.Zigzag Goldenrod, Broadleaf Goldenrod
GoldenrodSolidago altissima*
(Native)
Tall Goldenrod, Late Goldenrod, Canada GoldenrodGoldenrods are notoriously difficult to identify to a particular species, so make sure you don't rely on a single source for your identification information. This could easily have been listed as Solidago canadensis rather than Solidago altissima because not only is it a fairly close match for either, but S. altissima is listed as a variety of S. canadensis by some authorities. However, the USDA Plants Database lists S. altissima as a separate species, and the University of Tennessee Fungus Herbarium has a reference to a fungus found on S. altissima in Cade’s Cove in 1939. The Audubon eastern wildflowers book also treats it as a separate species, and lists it as blooming into November. Since the UT Herbarium only lists var glabra in S. canadensis in Tennessee (including Sevier County, where these specimens were photographed), and I have chosen to treat it as a separate species, I have listed this as S. altissima. More details on the identifying characteristics along with the accompanying photographs. Tall Goldenrod, Late Goldenrod, Canada Goldenrod
GoldensealHydrastis canadensis*
(Native)
Goldenseal, orangerootGoldenseal has much medicinal usage, and due to the commercial exploitation is becoming rarer. It is listed as Endangered, Threatened, or of Special Concern in 12 of the 27 states in which it is found, including Georgia, where these photos were taken.Goldenseal, orangeroot
Green VioletHybanthus concolor*
(Native)
Green Violet, Eastern GreenvioletUSDA lists 4 species of Hybanthus in the United States. Two are found in only a single state (H. attenuatus in Arizona, and H. linearifolius in Florida). H. verticillatus (Babyslippers) is found in six mid- to southwestern states. The species here, photographed in Georgia, has the widest distribution, being found in most of the eastern half of the United States. It is also found in Ontario, Canada.

Another species, H. parviflorus, is not native to the United States but was found in Georgia in 1998 and identified as that Argentinian species; this species was also found in New Jersey in the 19th century, but has not been identified there since. There are many other species worldwide in the Hybanthus genus, but there is consideration to splitting Hybanthus into two genera - Hybanthus with only a few species (H. concolor remaining) and a much larger genus, Pombalia.

Hybanthus concolor is classified as follows: Connecticut - Special Concern, Florida - Endangered, Iowa - Threatened, New Jersey - Endangered.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Green Violet, Eastern Greenviolet
GroundcherryPhysalis virginiana*
(Native)
Virginia Groundcherry, Ground Cherry, Lanceleaf Groundcherry, Hog Plum, Husk TomatoThere are 29 species of Physalis found in the United States in 2012 according to the USDA Plants Database. At least one species is found in every state except Alaska, although neither of the species found in Hawaii (P. philadelphica and P. peruviana) are native to the United States. The species presented here, Physalis virginiana, is one of the more widely distributed species, being found throughout the middle and eastern United States and Canada except for Florida, Rhode Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. It is classified as Endangered in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Virginia Groundcherry, Ground Cherry, Lanceleaf Groundcherry, Hog Plum, Husk Tomato
GroundnutApios americana*
(Native)
Groundnut, Potato Bean, Indian Potato, Virginia Potato, Wild Bean, Wild Sweet PotatoTwo of the 8 to 10 Apios species in the world are found in the U.S. - the narrowly distributed and U.S. Threatened Apios priceana, Price’s Potato Bean, and the species presented here, Apios americana, Groundnut. Apios americana is found in every state east of the Rocky Mountains. It is a perennial vine that grows to 10 feet long in wet areas - marshy meadows and thickets, stream and pond banks, and moist woodlands.

The common names attributed to these species speak to the edibility of both the tuber and the seeds. Apios americana was a noteworthy food of both native Americans as well as early colonists of New England. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Groundnut, Potato Bean, Indian Potato, Virginia Potato, Wild Bean, Wild Sweet Potato
HawksbeardCrepis intermedia*
(Native)
Limestone Hawksbeard, Smallflower HawksbeardThis was one of the more difficult identifications I've done, and even now, after hours of research, I'm not certain I've got this correct as Crepis intermedia. I pretty quickly identified the plant in my photos and memory as a member of the Crepis genus, using my copy of Idaho Mountain Wildflowers and a quick search on the Internet to get a closer blossom photo. But there are 25 species of Crepis found in the United States, with nine of them found in Idaho, where I photographed this plant. Unfortunately, most of the species of Crepis are very similar in appearance, especially to the untrained, unacquainted eye such as mine.

Some species had a characteristic that quickly eliminated it from my short-list (or not-so-short list) of nine species - C. bakerii has reddish stems, for example. So, armed with understanding of variances within a species, it came down to comparing a lot of photos on the Internet with mine - most from CalPhoto - and a couple of key characteristis – leaf shape, and hair configuration. Some species were eliminated from contention because the shape of the leaf lobes weren't deep enough, such as that on C. occidentalis. Combining those features with another key differentiator – glandular hairs – finally brought me to the Crepis intermedia decision. And since there are other species with glandular hairs, and the hairs on C. intermedia are not always glandular, that leaves me with one of my lower confidence levels in this being an accurate identification. Caveat emptor!
Limestone Hawksbeard, Smallflower Hawksbeard
HawkweedHieracium venosum*
(Native)
Rattlesnake Weed, Rattlesnake Hawkweed, Veiny Hawkweed is listed as Endangered in Maine. Officially listed as a noxious weed in Washington state, even though the USDA doesn't list it as being found in Washington State. The fact that it is listed as a noxious weed in that state implies that it is indeed found there, and it is listed for neighboring British Columbia, so I'm including it in Washington's list here on USWildflowers.com. I suspect that with this being a disjunct location – Hieracium venosum is an eastern species – that the British Columbia and Washington populations are not native.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Rattlesnake Weed, Rattlesnake Hawkweed, Veiny Hawkweed
HawkweedHieracium aurantiacum*
(Introduced)
Orange Hawkweed, Devil’s PaintbrushThis non-native species is listed as a noxious weed in five states. Hieracium aurantiacum is found in most of the northern United States from coast to coast, and a number of southern states as well. It is also found in much of Canada.

Found in:
AK, AR, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Orange Hawkweed, Devil’s Paintbrush
HeartleafHexastylis shuttleworthii*
(Native)
Largeflower Heartleaf, Shuttleworth’s GingerThere are three North American genera in the Birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae) - Aristolochia (Dutchman’s Pipe), Asarum (Wild Ginger), and Hexastylis (Heartleaf.) Ten of the Aristolochiaceae species are in Hexastylis; all these are native to North America, primarily in the southeastern part of the United States. Some authorities include the Hexastylis species within the Asarum genus instead of maintaining separation. The Hexastylis genus gets its name from the six styles in the flower. Most of the differences between species have to do with the shape of the calyx tube and features of the calyx lobes and interior of the calyx.

Hexastylis shuttleworthii - Shuttleworth’s Ginger, Largeflower Heartleaf - is one of the more widely distributed species in the genus, being found mainly near creeks in forests of the Appalachian mountains of 6 southeastern states, with a disjunct population on Long Island in New York. It should be noted that there is some indication that the examples in NY, VA, and WV, may be larger-flowered specimens of Hexastylis heterophylla. There are two varieties of Hexastylis shuttleworthii with the difference being in the shape of the rhizome and how the leaves are distributed along the rhizome.

Found in:
AL, GA, MS, NC, NY, SC, TN, VA
Largeflower Heartleaf, Shuttleworth’s Ginger
HeartleafHexastylis arifolia*
(Native)
Little Brown Jug, Arrowleaf GingerThere are three North American genera in the Birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae) - Aristolochia (Dutchman’s Pipe), Asarum (Wild Ginger), and Hexastylis (Heartleaf, sometimes also called Wild Ginger.) Ten of the Aristolochiaceae species are in Hexastylis; all these are native to North America, primarily in the southeastern part of the United States. Some authorities include the Hexastylis species within the Asarum genus instead of maintaining separation. The Hexastylis genus gets its name from the six styles in the flower. Most of the differences between species have to do with the shape of the calyx tube and features of the calyx lobes and interior of the calyx.

Hexastylis arifolia, the most widespread species in the genus, is of the southeastern United States, being found from Kentucky and Virginia south to the Gulf coast states east of the Mississippi River, including eastern Louisiana. It is protected as Threatened in Florida. There are three generally recognized varieties - var. arifolia, var. callifollia, and var. ruthii with variations of the calyx tube and lobes used to differentiate.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA
Little Brown Jug, Arrowleaf Ginger
HeathLeiophyllum buxifolium
(Native)
Mountain Myrtle, Sand MyrtleTiny blossoms atop branches with tiny succulent leaves

Found in:
GA, KY, NC, NJ, PA, SC, TN
Mountain Myrtle, Sand Myrtle
Hedge ParsleyTorilis arvensis*
(Introduced)
Spreading Hedge Parsley, Field Hedge Parsley, Common Hedge ParsleyTorilis arvensis, which has the USDA national common name of Spreading Hedge Parsley, is also known as Field Hedge Parsley and as Common Hedge Parsley. It is introduced in the United States, native only to British Columbia in North America. Even though it has spread widely in the United States due to the sticky bur seeds, it apparently does not crowd out native species too aggressively, because it is listed as an obnoxious weed in only one state - Washington, which is, of course, right across the border from BC, where it is native. Torilis japonica is a very similar species, and is in fact listed as a synonym of T. arvensis at the Department of Biological Sciences at Vanderbilt University. However, the USDA lists it as a separate species, as does Dr. John Hilty over at IllinoisWildflowers.info. According to Dr. Hilty, the primary difference between the plants is that T. japonica has about 8 linear bracts at the base of each compound umbel. This feature is missing in T. arvensis.Spreading Hedge Parsley, Field Hedge Parsley, Common Hedge Parsley
HempvineMikania scandens*
(Native)
Climbing Hempweed, Climbing BonesetThere are only two Mikania (Hempvine) species found in the United States outside of Puerto Rico. Mikania cordifolia, Florida Keys Hempvine, is found in the very deep south, and the species presented here, Mikania scandens. Mikania scandens is found in swampy woods, damp ditches, pond margins, and wet creeksides throughout most of the eastern United States from Texas to Maine, and has also been introduced into Ontario, Canada.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA
Climbing Hempweed, Climbing Boneset
HepaticaHepatica nobilis*
(Native)
Sharp-lobed Hepatica, LiverleafAnemone acutiloba is one of several synonyms for Hepatica nobilis var acuta, sharp-lobed hepatica. Round-lobed hepatica was previously categorized as Anemone hepatica, but has now been reclassified as a variety of H. nobilis - Hepatica nobilis var obtusa. All this is according to the USDA Plants Database. I bet other authorities will give you a different classification; there are at least 8 synonyms for the two varieties of H. nobilis.

Sharp-Lobed Hepatica is listed as "Threatened" in Connecticut, "Endangered" in Florida, and of "Special Concern" in Rhode Island. According to USDA, it is "Possibly Extirpated" in Maine.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Sharp-lobed Hepatica, Liverleaf
HoarypeaTephrosia virginiana*
(Native)
Goat’s Rue, Virginia Tephrosia, Catgut, Hoary-pea, Rabbit-peaTephrosia virginiana - Goat’s Rue - is the most widely distributed species in the Tephrosia - Hoarypea - genus, being found in every state east of the Mississippi River except for Vermont, and also in a number of states west of the Mississippi. There is apparently some disagreement as to plants classified in this genus, because I’ve seen it variously described with from 32 to 350-400 species in the genus. Tephrosia virginiana is Endangered in New Hampshire and classified as Special Concern in Rhode Island and Minnesota.

Goat’s Rue contains rotenone, a chemical used as an insecticide and pesticide. The plant also was reportedly used by native Americans to stun fish for easy harvesting.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Goat’s Rue, Virginia Tephrosia, Catgut, Hoary-pea, Rabbit-pea
HogpeanutAmphicarpaea bracteata*
(Native)
American HogpeanutThis thin-stemmed twisting vine is the only species in the Amphicarpaea genus, a member of the Pea family. It twists around other plants and on fences, reaching up to 6 feet in length.

This plant produces flowers along the stem/vine, shown on these pages, and also at the base of the stem. These basal flowers produce an edible bean-like fruit, which apparently can be quite tasty when cooked. Sometimes these fruits develop underground, similarly to a peanut.
American Hogpeanut
HoneysuckleLonicera sempervirens*
(Native)
Trumpet HoneysuckleGrundy County, TN, 05/25/2008Trumpet Honeysuckle
HoneysuckleLonicera japonica*
(Introduced)
Japanese HoneysuckleNon-native, imported from Asia as an ornamental, this lovely, fragrant vine is well-established in 38 states, and is listed as a noxious weed in two, plus is banned from cultivation in New Hampshire.Japanese Honeysuckle
HoneysuckleLonicera fragrantissima*
(Introduced)
Sweet Breath of Spring, Fragrant Honeysuckle, Winter Honeysuckle, January JasmineThis non-native is one of the bush honeysuckles, and has arching stems to 10 feet tall. Most of the native honeysuckles are vines.

This is a very early-blooming plant, sometimes as early as January in the warmer parts of its range. In some areas it is given the common name January Jasmine, which is the same common name as is given to Jasminum nudiflorum. The latter is in the olive family rather than the honeysuckle family. Both plants bloom at about the same time, and L. fragrantissima blossoms fade to yellow as they age, which may lead to some confusion between the species. However, L. fragrantissima has a very distinct, pleasant fragrance, and Jasminum nudiflorum has none.

According to TexasInvasives.org, L. fragrantissima was introduced from Asia in the 1700s and 1800s. Since it is currently listed in only 13 states, it does not appear to be as dramatically invasive as its cousin, Lonicera japonica – Japanese honeysuckle – which is in 39 states. However, my observation of the plant is in a county in Tennessee (Hamilton) that is not included in the official distributions lists, so it is likely that it is more widespread than much documentation implies. L. fragrantissima is an eastern species in the US, being found west of the Mississippi only in Utah and Louisiana.

Found in:
AL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, UT, VA
Sweet Breath of Spring, Fragrant Honeysuckle, Winter Honeysuckle, January Jasmine
HoneysuckleLonicera flava
(Native)
Yellow Honeysuckle, Pale Yellow HoneysuckleOne of our native honeysuckles, this vine prefers upland rocky forests, bluffs, and streamsides. There is some stiffness to the stems, so it may also appear as a small shrub.

Similar species are L. dioica and L. reticulata.

Endangered in Illinois, Special Concern in Tennessee, critically imperiled in Kansas, Presumed Extirpated in Ohio.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IL, KS, KY, MO, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN
Yellow Honeysuckle, Pale Yellow Honeysuckle
HoneysuckleLonicera utahensis*
(Native)
Utah Honeysuckle, Red Twinberry, and Fly HoneysuckleThis native honeysuckle is found in the mountains of 8 western states and western Canada, up to the treeline. It is a perennial shrub growing up to about 6 feet high, blooming in late spring to early summer.

Found in:
AZ, ID, MT, NM, OR, UT, WA, WY
Utah Honeysuckle, Red Twinberry, and Fly Honeysuckle
Horse GentianTriosteum angustifolium*
(Native)
Yellow Horse Gentian, Yellowfruit Horsegentian, Narrow-leaved Horse-gentian, Lesser Horse-gentian, Yellow Tinkers WeedThere are three species in Triosteum found in the United States, with the westernmost distribution being in Kansas. All three of these are widely distributed in the east and south. Triosteum angustifolium is a bit more of a southern species than the other two. That is exemplified by the fact that the places where it is Endangered are more northern states - Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, TN, TX, VA, WV
Yellow Horse Gentian, Yellowfruit Horsegentian, Narrow-leaved Horse-gentian, Lesser Horse-gentian, Yellow Tinkers Weed
HorsebalmCollinsonia verticillata*
(Native)
Whorled Horsebalm, Early StonerootCollinsonia currently has 4 recognized species, although there have been as many as 10 in the past. This implies significant variation within some species.

Found in nine mostly southeastern states (AL, FL, GA, KY, NC, OH, SC, TN, VA), Collinsonia verticillata is listed as endangered in Ohio and Kentucky.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, KY, NC, OH, SC, TN, VA
Whorled Horsebalm, Early Stoneroot
HorsetailEquisetum laevigatum
(Native)
Smooth Horsetail, Smooth Scouring RushThe genus name Equisetum comes from the latin words for “horse” and “bristle.” Equisetum laevigatum is a fern rather than a flowering plant, but I believe it deserves a place on these pages. It reproduces by spores and and spreads by rhizomes. Found throughout most of the United States except the most northeastern and southeastern states, Smooth Horsetail is Endangered in New York. It is usually found in wet areas, although it may also occasionally be found on drier ground.

Found in:
AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SD, TX, UT, WA, WI, WY
Smooth Horsetail, Smooth Scouring Rush
Hound's tongueCynoglossum virginianum
(Native)
Wild ComfreyWoodland wildflower of late spring. There are eight species in the Cynoglossum genus found in the US, three of which are native to North America - C. grande (CA, OR, WA), C. occidentale (CA, OR), and this species, C. virginianum, with one of the two varieties of the species found in most of the eastern half of the U.S. - 34 states.

Wild Comfrey is at risk in 9 states:
  • Connecticut: Special Concern
  • Florida: Endangered
  • Maine: Endangered
  • New Hampshire: Endangered
  • New Jersey: Endangered
  • New York: Endangered
  • Ohio: Presumed Extirpated
  • Pennsylvania: extirpated
  • Vermont: Threatened
Wild Comfrey
Hound's tongueCynoglossum officinale*
(Introduced)
Houndstongue, Hound's Tongue, Gypsyflowerc.Found in all but 7 states (and most of Canada), Cynoglossum officinale is listed as a noxious weed in Colorado, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Houndstongue, Hound's Tongue, Gypsyflower
HydrangeaHydrangea arborescens*
(Native)
Wild HydrangeaWild Hyndrangea is listed as endangered in both Florida and New York.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Wild Hydrangea
HydrangeaHydrangea quercifolia*
(Native)
Oakleaf HydrangeaA native species in the United States, Oakleaf Hydrangea is found in the wild only in the eight southeastern states – Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee, as well as the District of Columbia. You're likely to see it in other states, however, because it started gaining popularity as a garden plant in the late 20th century. Several showy cultivars are available. The natural, native plant, which has more of the large white florets than the other native wild hydrangeas, is quite attractive as a yard shrub. I've noticed quite a number of them growing in yards on Lookout Mountain in Tennessee and Georgia.

It is a shrub that can grow quite large, as tall as 8' or 10' (some reports of 25'), and its many branches growing from the base can spread to cover a wider area than it is tall.

Found in:
AL, DC, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN
Oakleaf Hydrangea
Indian BreadrootPediomelum subacaule*
(Native)
Nashville Breadroot, Whiterim Scurfpea, Glade PotatoThere are over 20 Pediomelum (Indian Breadroot) species in the United States, but only about 5 in the east, and only one of those (P. canescens, Buckroot) has relatively wide eastern U.S. distribution. The other eastern species have very narrow distribution, as is the case with Pediomelum subacaule, which is found only in limestone cedar glades in two northwest Georgia counties, four counties in Alabama, and in several counties in middle Tennessee. It is considered rare in both Alabama and Georgia. The plants presented here were photographed in a cedar glade in the Catoosa County, Georgia part of the Chickamauga Battlefield section of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park.

The species epithet subacaule references the minimal stem of the plant - the multiple leaf stalks arise directly from the underground root, as does the leafless floral stem.

Found in:
AL, GA, TN
Nashville Breadroot, Whiterim Scurfpea, Glade Potato
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Indian Cucumber RootMedeola virginiana*
(Native)
Indian Cucumber RootIndian Cucumber Root, Big Frog Trail, Polk County TN 05/09/2009 and 05/30/2004Indian Cucumber Root
Indian PaintbrushCastilleja covilleana*
(Native)
Rocky Mountain Indian Paintbrush, Coville Indian PaintbrushRocky Mountain Paintbrush is one of the red Indian Paintbrushes, although it can occasionally be orange or even yellow. It is found commonly in Idaho, but in no other states except very rarely in Montana. It is a leafy, hairy plant, up to about a foot high. A. Scott Earle, in Idaho Mountain Wildflowers, describes it as “spidery.” It is very similar to Northwestern Indian Paintbrush, Castilleja angustifolia, and frankly I'm not certain I have this ID correct. That's due to the similarity of the two species, and because the USDA does not list C. covilleana in Ada County, ID, where I photographed this plant. However, it does list C. angustifolia in Ada County. However, Northwestern Indian Paintbrush seems to be a more erect plant, being up to 18 inches tall, and Jepsen describes angustifolia as having up to 5 lobes on the leaf. The Montana Field Guides website, operated by the Montana state government, says C. covilleana can have up to 7 lobes on the leaves, and I have found at least one leaf (and I think more) in my photos of this plant with 7 lobes. The middle, terminal lobe of the leaf will be almost as narrow as the lateral lobes. The hairs on the plant in my photos also seems fitting with the long, soft hairs described for C. covilleana.

Found in:
ID, MT
Rocky Mountain Indian Paintbrush, Coville Indian Paintbrush
Indian PipeMonotropa uniflora*
(Native)
Indian Pipe, Ghost Flower, Ghost PlantWhen first seen, Indian Pipe seems more like a mushroom or other fungus than like a true flowering plant due to the color - or lack of color. However, it has a stem, bract-like scales in place of leaves, and a single flower at the end of the stem. The single flower gives it the species epithet - uniflora - which is a key difference between this species and Monotropa hypopitys the only other species in the Montropa genus. Monotropa hypopitys (Pinesap) has multiple flowers in a cluster on each stem.

Indian Pipe has roots through which it gathers its nourishment. The plant lacks chlorophyll but instead gets its nutrients through a mutually beneficial relationship with a fungus in the soil where it grows.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Indian Pipe, Ghost Flower, Ghost Plant
Indian PlantainArnoglossum reniforme*
(Native)
Great Indian PlantainGreat Indian Plantain is 3 to 9 feet tall, with basal and stem leaves which are palmately lobed. The leaves can be huge. The blossoms have white disk flowers only, with 10 to 20 blossoms per terminal cluster. The involucre bracts are greenish white. The only Indian Plantain in the area where these photos were taken with palmately lobed leaves are A. atriplicifolium and A. reniforme. The identification as A. reniforme is based on the distinct ribbing on the stems, which is 'slight' on A. atriplicifolium, and the fact that the stems in this specimen are not glaucous. The leaves also are a darker green than in Pale Indian Plantain. Unfortunately I did not photograph the underside of the leaves, nor did I make notes as to whether they were glaucous or not, as they are in A. atriplicifolium, and are not glaucous in A. reniforme.Great Indian Plantain
Indian StrawberryDuchesnea indica*
(Introduced)
Indian Strawberry, India MockstrawberryIndian Strawberry is a prone, creeping plant which produces roots at the leaf nodes. It produces red strawberry-like fruits, but they are tasteless (but also harmless.) Because of the fruit, it could be confused with wild strawberry, but that plant has white blossoms. It is also similar to Dwarf Cinquefoil, which has 5 leaflets instead of the 3 leaflets of Indian Strawberry. Duchesnea indica was introduced from India. The relationship to cinquefoil (both in the rose family) is emphasized by an effort to have it reclassified as Potentilla indica, based on a genetic study published in 2002. So far it appears that most authoritative sources have retained the old classification.Indian Strawberry, India Mockstrawberry
IpomopsisIpomopsis aggregata*
(Native)
Scarlet Gilia, Scarlet Skyrocket, Scarlet Trumpet, Skunk FlowerThe Ipomopsis genus name is from Greek for Striking Appearance (ipoo + opsis.) The Scarlet Gilia common name results from the significant amount of time it was classified in the Gilia genus as Gilia aggregata. The Gilia genus is named for Italian clergyman and naturalist Filippo Luigi Gilii. swcoloradowildflowers.com has a good biographical sketch of Mr. Gilii.

Ipomopsis gilia has been bounced around in several different genuses (all within the Phlox family) and even recently some authorities still classified it in three different species. Most authorities now seem to have agreed upon this single species classification, but with several different subspecies still being used. As is the case with so many other western plant species, Scarlet Gilia was collected by Lewis and Clark in 1806 on their famous expedition, finding it in what is now northern Idaho.

The Primary pollinators are hummingbirds (attracted more to the red form) and long-tongued moths, who seem to be attracted more by the unpleasant odor of the plant. This unpleasant odor gives it the "Skunk Flower" common name sometimes applied.

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OK, OR, TX, UT, WA, WY
Scarlet Gilia, Scarlet Skyrocket, Scarlet Trumpet, Skunk Flower
Iris Iris cristata*
(Native)
Crested Dwarf Iris Crested Dwarf Iris
IrisIris verna*
(Native)
Dwarf Violet Iris, Vernal Iris, Spring IrisVernal Iris (USDA common name is Dwarf Violet Iris) leaves are up to about 4 to 5 inches tall, with the large, colorful blossom being predominant above the leaves during the blooming season – mid to late spring.

Iris verna is listed as endangered in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and threatened in Ohio.
Dwarf Violet Iris, Vernal Iris, Spring Iris
IrisIris domestica*
(Introduced)
Blackberry Lily, Leopard Flower, Leopard LilyIntroduced from Asia, Iris domestica escaped from cultivation and apparently naturalized fairly quickly since Augustin Gattinger, a Tennessee botanist from the 19th century, believed it to be a native species. This was previously classified as Belamcanda chinensis, the only species in the genus Belamcanda, but recent molecular studies have resulted in the reclassification into the Iris genus as Iris domestica.

"Blackberry" in the common name comes from the tight clusters of dark seeds the plant produces.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Blackberry Lily, Leopard Flower, Leopard Lily
IrisIris pseudacorus*
(Introduced)
Yellow Flag Iris, Paleyellow Iris, Yellow Iris, Water FlagIris pseudacorus is a species brought in from Europe as a decorative plant for its attractive yellow flowers, escaped, and has established itself well in wet areas throughout much of North America. Think cattails for the habitat in which it grows. It has been used as a plant in natural sewage treatment since it can remove metals from waste water. Its propagation is restricted as an invasive weed in a number of states ranging from Massachusetts to Washington and California.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Yellow Flag Iris, Paleyellow Iris, Yellow Iris, Water Flag
IronweedVernonia gigantea*
(Native)
Tall Ironweed, Giant Ironweed, IronweedOne or more species of Ironweed is found in 40 of the 50 states. Vernonia gigantea is one of the more widespread species, being found in 25 states. As the name implies, it can be a tall species, up to 10 feet. The purple flowers bloom in August and on into November.Tall Ironweed, Giant Ironweed, Ironweed
Jack-in-the-PulpitArisaema triphyllum*
(Native)
Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip, Jack in the Pulpit, Jack-in-the-Pulpit usually has a single leaf with 3 leaflets on a stem from 12 to 36 inches tall, usually less than 2 feet. The tiny flowers are on a spike (spadix) which is encircled by a leaf-like spathe on a separate stem from the leaf. These stems separate at or near ground level. The spathe is green or purple and is usually striped. Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip, Jack in the Pulpit,
Jack-in-the-PulpitArisaema triphyllum ssp. quinatum*
(Native)
Prester John, Jack-in-the-PulpitIn my VERY limited observation there are notable differences between this plant, Arisaema triphyllum ssp. quinatum, and Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum and other subspecies of Arisaema. The most easily noticed difference is that ssp. quinatum has the appearance of having 5 leaflets while all the other subspecies clearly have three. The few individuals I have observed also implies that quinatum blooms later, the spathe is smaller relative to the flowering stalk height, and the spadix is thinner than in subspecies triphyllum. Subspecies quinatum is also found much less frequently than subspecies triphyllum, as well as having a much narrower distribution in North America, limited to several southeastern states.

synonym: Arisaema quinatum
Prester John, Jack-in-the-Pulpit
Jacob's LadderPolemonium pulcherrimum*
(Native)
Showy Jacob’s Ladder, Jacob’s Ladder, Skunky Polemonium, Skunkleaf PolemoniumI have found varying reports of 20 to 40 species being listed in the Polemonium (Jacob’s Ladder) genus worldwide. The USDA Plants Database lists 24 species in the United States, with a species being absent only in four states - Florida, Louisiana, Nebraska, and South Carolina. Of those 24 USDA-listed species, 2 are non-native, and an amazing 12 of them are found only in a single state (although a couple of those are also found in parts of Canada.)

The native North American members of this genus are primarily found in the western half of the continent with the notable exceptions of the relatively rare Vanbrunt’s Polemonium (P. vanbruntiae) which protected in 6 of the 7 northeastern states where it is found, and Greek Valerian (P. reptans) which is found in most of the eastern half of the United States and Canada. Polemonium pulcherrimum is found in the twelve westernmost states (exclusive of Hawaii) and in most of western Canada. It is a plant of mid to high elevations.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Showy Jacob’s Ladder, Jacob’s Ladder, Skunky Polemonium, Skunkleaf Polemonium
JimsonweedDatura stramonium*
(Introduced)
Jimsonweed, Jamestown Weed, Mad Apple, Moon Flower, Stinkwort, Thorn Apple, Devil's TrumpetThis purple-stemmed, introduced species is found in every state in the United States except Alaska and Wyoming, and is also found in much of Canada, and indeed throughout warm and moderate regions of the entire world. It is a banned weed in Connecticut and Pennsylvania, and is listed as an invasive by authoritative sources in most of the United States. In addition to being invasive, it is toxic, with the level of toxicity varying from plant to plant, and even from day to day in the same plant. Ingestion can be fatal. Toxicity is a common feature of plants in the Solanaceae (Nightshade / Potato) family.

The name Jimsonweed, a variant of Jamestown weed, originated because British soldiers were drugged with it near Jamestown, Virginia in 1675 by local farmers during Bacon's Rebellion, an inauspicious page in North American history, about which I had no knowledge until researching this plant.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Jimsonweed, Jamestown Weed, Mad Apple, Moon Flower, Stinkwort, Thorn Apple, Devil's Trumpet
Joe Pye WeedEutrochium fistulosum*
(Native)
Hollow Joe Pye Weed, Trumpetweed, Tubular Thoroughwort, Hollow-stemmed Joe-pye-weedThere are several species that go by the common name Joe Pye Weed. All of them were previously classified in the Eupatorium genus (Thoroughworts); Hollow Joe Pye Weed was Eupatorium fistulosum However, three of the species have recently been reclassified into their own genus, Eupatoriadelphus. I'm sure there was good reason for this reclassification, but it certainly adds to the name confusion.

Hollow Joe Pye Weed is found in 30 of our eastern/southern states. There is much overlap between E. fistulosus and the other 2 species; E. dubius is found on the eastern seaboard, and E. maculatus (Spotted Joe Pye Weed) is the most widespread species, found in 36 states and most of Canada.

Maine – Special Concern; Michigan – Threatened; New Hampshire – Endangered. Some consider it to be a weed.
Hollow Joe Pye Weed, Trumpetweed, Tubular Thoroughwort, Hollow-stemmed Joe-pye-weed
Joe Pye WeedEutrochium maculatum*
(Native)
Spotted Joe Pye Weed, Purple Boneset, Spotted TrumpetweedThere are several species that go by the common name Joe Pye Weed. All of them were previously classified in the Eupatorium genus (Thoroughworts); Spotted Joe Pye Weed was Eupatorium maculatum. However, three of the species were relatively recently been reclassified into their own genus, Eupatoriadelphus, which has more recently been renamed Eutrochium and had two more species added. I'm sure there was good reason for this reclassification, but it certainly adds to the name confusion.

Spotted Joe Pye weed is the most widespread of the Eutrochium species, being found in 36 states (BONAP shows only 35.) (E. steelie is the least widespread, found only in 4 states.)

Found in:
AZ, CO, CT, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Spotted Joe Pye Weed, Purple Boneset, Spotted Trumpetweed
KittentailsSynthyris missurica*
(Native)
Tailed Kittentails, Mountain Kittentails, Mountain KittentoesSynthyris species are found only in eight northwestern states, in Alaska, and in northwestern Canada. There are three subspecies of Synthyris missurica - ssp. hirsuta, found only in Oregon, ssp. stellata, found in Oregon and Washington, and the one presented here, ssp. missurica, found in those two states as well as northern California, Idaho, and Montana. It should be noted that ITIS lists a major subspecies, and does not accept the hirsuta subspecies. In the southern end of its range Synthyris missurica is found only in higher elevations. It is an early blooming plant, shortly following snow melt, or even while some snow is still on the ground.

Synthyris missurica is one of many species that have been moved out of the Scrophulariaceae family (figworts.) It has been moved to family Plantaginaceae (Plantains,) one of several families receiving species from the disintegrating Figwort family.

Found in:
CA, ID, MT, OR, WA
Tailed Kittentails, Mountain Kittentails, Mountain Kittentoes
KnapweedCentaurea cyanus*
(Introduced)
Bachelor’s Button, Bluebottle, Cornflower, Garden CornflowerThis introduced species was brought over to North America as an ornamental by immigrants from Europe, and is commonly cultivated. It is now found wild in every state except Alaska, and is also found in most of Canada. It is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities.

In its native southern Europe, this flower grows among the grainfield, giving it the "Cornflower" common name.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Bachelor’s Button, Bluebottle, Cornflower, Garden Cornflower
KudzuPueraria montana*
(Introduced)
KudzuOriginally imported from Japan in 1876 in a effort to fight erosion, this plant is one of our earlier ecological nightmares, especially in the southeastern United States. Up until the early 1950s farmers were encouraged to plant Kudzu as a ground cover in area subject to erosion. Due to its extremely invasive nature, It is now recognized and officially listed as a noxious weed in many states.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WV
Kudzu
LadyslipperCypripedium acaule*
(Native)
Pink Ladyslipper, Moccasin Flower This member of the orchid family has a solitary blossom on a hairy stem arising from two or sometimes three elliptical glossy, dark green, ribbed, hairy basal leaves. The "acaule" species epithet refers to the fact that there are no stem leaves - all other Ladyslipper species have stem - cauline - leaves.Pink Ladyslipper, Moccasin Flower
LadyslipperCypripedium parviflorum*
(Native)
Yellow Ladyslipper, Lesser Yellow Lady’s Slipper, Greater Yellow Lady’s Slipper, Small Flowered Yellow Lady’s SlipperThere are about 45 species of Cypripedium - Lady’s Slipper, Ladyslipper, Moccasin Flower - worldwide, with about a dozen found in the United States. Of these, Cypripedium parviflorum is the most widely distributed, with a variety being found in each state except four (Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Nevada.) Although it is the most widely distributed, in most of its range it is uncommon or rare, being classified as Threatened or Endangered in at least 6 states, and having legal protection in others.

Cypripedium parviflorum was first thought to be within the European and Asian species Cypripedium calceolus. There are three varieties usually recognized, although due to variability (and confusion) they can be difficult to differentiate. While var. pubescens carries the common name Greater Yellow Ladyslipper, in some habitats it can have flowers of similar size to those of var. parviflorum, which is known by the common name Lesser Yellow Ladyslipper. While var. makasin has similar lip size (15-29mm) to those usually found on var. parviflorum, the range is more northerly (boreal habitat) and apparently the more distinct attribute of this boreal variety is the aroma - intensely sweet, versus a faint or moderately rose-like or musty aroma in the other two varieties.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Yellow Ladyslipper, Lesser Yellow Lady’s Slipper, Greater Yellow Lady’s Slipper, Small Flowered Yellow Lady’s Slipper
LarkspurDelphinium tricorne*
(Native)
Dwarf Larkspur, Spring LarkspurDelphinium tricorne is a woodland wildflower of mid to late spring. The plant will usually be 18 to 30 inches tall, unlike some of its cousins which might be up to six feet tall. The spurred blossoms are blue, white, or both blue and white.

All of the larkspurs are poisonous.
Dwarf Larkspur, Spring Larkspur
LaurelKalmia latifolia
(Native)
Mountain LaurelMountain Laurel is a shrub found in most states east of the Mississippi River.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Mountain Laurel
LeafcupPolymnia canadensis*
(Native)
Whiteflower Leafcup, White Bear's Foot, Smallflower LeafcupCommon woodland wildflower of early- to mid-summer.

There are four species of Polymnia. (A 5th, Polymnia uvedalia, is now classified as Smallanthus uvedalia - Yellow Leafcup.) Three of the Polymnia species are found in the United States. P. cossatotensis - Cossatot Mountain Leafcup - is found only in Arkansas. P. laevigata - Tennessee Leafcup - is found in 6 of the states in which White Leafcup - Polymnia canadensis is found. Polymnia canadensis is found in many states in the eastern half of the country, and is also found in Ontario, Canada. It is Endangered in Connecticut and Vermont.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Whiteflower Leafcup, White Bear's Foot, Smallflower Leafcup
LeafcupSmallanthus uvedalius*
(Native)
Hairy Leafcup, Bear's Foot, Yellow Leafcup, UvedaliaTall leafy plant with VERY large leaves and yellow flowers with typical aster family structure - ray flowers and disk flowers. Leaves are opposing. The occasional branches seem to arise from the leaf axils.

Synonym: Polymnia uvedalia, which seems to be in more common use than what is now the new classification, Smallanthus uvedalius. This is the only species in the the Smallanthus genus listed in the USDA Plants Database, although the Missouri Botanical Gardens TROPICOS database list 26 species in the genus. I suspect the other 25 species are not found in the United States.

Uvedalia has been used for medicinal purposes, including treatment of rheumatism and hair loss.

The species is listed as Endangered in New York and New Jersey, and as Threatened in Michigan, where it has legal protection.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Hairy Leafcup, Bear's Foot, Yellow Leafcup, Uvedalia
Leather FlowerClematis terniflora*
(Introduced)
Sweet Autumn Clematis, Sweet Autumn Virginsbower, Leatherleaf Clematis, Yam-leaved ClematisSweet Autumn Clematis is a non-native climbing vine with sweet-smelling white blossoms. Sweet Autumn Virginsbower is the USDA "national common name." According to the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council it can be weedy or invasive, and that is also my personal observation.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Sweet Autumn Clematis, Sweet Autumn Virginsbower, Leatherleaf Clematis, Yam-leaved Clematis
Leather FlowerClematis viorna*
(Native)
Leather Vasevine, Leather Flower, VasevineClematis viorna is a vine that is grows to around 20 feet long. Primarily a southeastern species, it is listed as endangered in Illinois and Pennsylvania.Leather Vasevine, Leather Flower, Vasevine
Leather FlowerClematis ligusticifolia*
(Native)
Western Clematis, Western White Clematis, Western Virgin's Bower, Creek Clematis, Old Man's Beard, Pepper VineThis is the Virgin's Bower found most frequently in the western parts of the U.S. and Canada, growing in a variety of habitats. The plant may be toxic if ingested, and can cause skin irritations. According to Flora of North America, "Infusions prepared from the plants of Clematis ligusticifolia were used medicinally by Native Americans as a wash for skin eruptions, a lotion for backaches or swollen limbs, and a lotion to protect one against witches; stems and leaves were chewed to treat colds and sore throats; decoctions of leaves were also used as a wash and for stomachaches and cramps; and lathers of leaves were used to treat boils on humans and on animals (D. E. Moerman 1986)."

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, PA, SD, UT, WA, WY
Western Clematis, Western White Clematis, Western Virgin's Bower, Creek Clematis, Old Man's Beard, Pepper Vine
Leather FlowerClematis hirsutissima*
(Native)
Vase-flower, Sugarbowl, Leather-flower, Hairy ClematisWhen I saw this flower in the campground at Ponderosa State Park I immediately thought of Clematis viorna due to the shape of the flower, except that unlike C. viorna this plant is not a vine - all my prior Clematis experience - and it is hairy - the blossom of C. viorna is smooth and leathery. I then thought maybe this is Prairie Smoke (Geum triflorum), but a quick look in my copy of Idaho Mountain Wildflowers - A. Scott Earle confirmed the Clematis connection - Clematis hirsutissima. There are two varieties of this species - var. hirsutissima and var. scottii. The one presented here is var. hirsutissima.

Found in:
AZ, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, OK, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Vase-flower, Sugarbowl, Leather-flower, Hairy Clematis
Leather FlowerClematis occidentalis*
(Native)
Western Virgin’s Bower, Western Blue Virginsbower, Mountain Clematis, Purple Clematis, Purple Virgin's-bowerClematis occidentalis is a viny plant which carries its violet blue to purple (occasionally purplish pink or white) blossoms between mid spring and early summer. It is one of two species in the Atragene subgenus of Clematis, the other being Clematis columbiana. It seems the primary visual difference between the species is the trifoliate leaf form, with C. columbiana being 2-3 ternate, while C. occidentalis is 1-ternate. Also the leaf margins of C. columbiana are usually serrate, while those of C. occidentalis are either entire or may be toothed. These small differences result in what is apparently a frequent incorrect identification in the western states where the ranges of the two species overlap. Of course, it is possible that I have incorrectly identified it here.

There are three varieties of Clematis occidentalis: var. grosseserrata is found only in the western U.S. and Canada, var. occidentalis is found only in the eastern U.S. and Canada, and var. dissecta which is found only in Washington state. Var. occidentalis is pretty rare, and is listed in the following Illinois (Endangered), Maine (Special Concern), Maryland (Endangered), Massachusetts (Special Concern), Ohio (Presumed Extirpated), and Rhode Island (Endangered.)

Found in:
CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Western Virgin’s Bower, Western Blue Virginsbower, Mountain Clematis, Purple Clematis, Purple Virgin's-bower
Leather FlowerClematis virginiana*
(Native)
Virgin’s Bower, Devil's Darning Needles, Old Man’s BeardThere are over 30 Clematis species in the United States. There are some significant differences in the floral and vegetative attributes within the genus, and experts have divided it into four subgenera - some experts have classified subgenus Atragene instead as genus Atragene and subgenus Viticella as genus Viticella. The species presented here, Clematis virginiana, is part of subgenus Clematis, characterized by thin spreading sepals (rather than leathery ones found in the subgenus Viorna or bell-shaped perianths of subgenus Atragene.) The sepals of subg. Clematis are white or yellow, usually in many-flowered inflorescences.

Clematis virginiana has the widest distribution of the native species east of the Rocky Mountains, with Clematis ligusticifolia having that distinction in the west. These are similar species, and both are found in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma, with C. ligusticifolia being found westward from there and C. virginiana also in Texas and eastward from there.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Virgin’s Bower, Devil's Darning Needles, Old Man’s Beard
Leather-rootOrbexilum pedunculatum*
(Native)
Sampson’s Snakeroot, False Scurf-peaThis plant can be easily identified as a member of the pea family (Fabaceae) based on the flowers and leaves, but the seedpod is circular rather than the long peapod fruit we normally expect from Fabaceae. It is a plant primarily of the southeastern United States, although it’s range extends northward into Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and southern Michigan.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
Sampson’s Snakeroot, False Scurf-pea
LespedezaLespedeza cuneata
(Introduced)
Sericea LespedezaThere are native lespedeza species in the United States, but L. cuneata is an introduced species.Sericea Lespedeza
LettuceLactuca canadensis*
(Native)
Wild Lettuce, Canada LettuceTall plant with milky sap and yellow flowers. Leaves usually lobed, especially the lower leaves, but that is not always the case. Some authorities recognize multiple varieties, primarily based on leaf shape. Similar to non-native species Lactuca serrata, but that plant has prickles on the foliage.

Akin to garden lettuce, the young leaves are edible either in salads or cooked; slightly bitter.
Wild Lettuce, Canada Lettuce
LettuceLactuca floridana
(Native)
Woodland Lettuce, Florida Blue Lettuce, False LettuceBranching plant with loose cluster of small blue flowers. Lower leaves lobed, alternate; upper leaves lanceolate, entire or toothed.

Officially listed as Threatened in Michigan and as Endangered in New York, the New York City Wildflower Week reports to me that in New York it is found in a single site in the Bronx Borough.
Woodland Lettuce, Florida Blue Lettuce, False Lettuce
LettuceLactuca serriola*
(Introduced)
Prickly Lettuce, China LettuceA species introduced from Eurasia, this plant has established itself in every state except for Alaska

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Prickly Lettuce, China Lettuce
LilyLilium philadelphicum*
(Native)
Wood Lily, Mountain Lily has quite widespread distribution in the United States and Canada. While it is common in the high mountains of the Rocky Mountains in the western part of its range, it is rare in the more eastern part of the range. Protected due to rarity in Arizona, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland (Extirpated,) New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Tennessee.

The plant featured on this page was photographed at one of only three known populations of the plant in Georgia, along a road in Cloudland Canyon State Park. Roadsides are among its common habitats, along with meadows, open woods, thickets, dunes, and tallgrass prairies.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Wood Lily, Mountain Lily
Lily of the ValleyConvallaria majuscula*
(Native)
American Lily of the ValleyLily of the Valley - American. Off Big Frog Trail on Chimneytop, Polk County TN.

This plant is considered poisonous, but it is reported to contain cardio glycosides, compounds that will strengthen the heart under carefully controlled dosing.

Found in:
GA, KY, NC, PA, TN, VA, WV
American Lily of the Valley
LionsheartPhysostegia virginiana*
(Native)
Obedient Plant, False Dragonhead, ObediencePhysostegia virginiana is found in moist sunny areas in much of the eastern and central United States, as well as eastern Canada. It is protected in Rhode Island (Special Concern) and Vermont (Threatened.)

The attractive blossoms last well when cut. They have been used in flower arrangements and stay in position when moved, resulting in the Obedient Plant common name. They bloom in mid to late summer.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV
Obedient Plant, False Dragonhead, Obedience
LobeliaLobelia puberula*
(Native)
Downy LobeliaDowny LobeliaDowny Lobelia
LobeliaLobelia cardinalis*
(Native)
Cardinal Flower, Scarlet LobeliaThis is the showiest of our Lobelia species with the bright red blossoms. I originally thought the "Cardinal" name came from the bird, but according to Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians, the name comes from the robes which Catholic Cardinals wear, which are this same color of crimson. Cardinal Flower, Scarlet Lobelia
LobeliaLobelia inflata*
(Native)
Inflated Lobelia, Indian TobaccoSmall plant with tiny 1/4-inch flowers white to bluish flowers. While the common name Indian Tobacco implies that it was used for smoking, there are reports that the plant should be considered toxic. However, according to Guido Mase of The Vermont Center for Integrative Herbalism,it is an "important remedy: allays spasm, anti-asthmatic, useful to quit tobacco." I assume that this information from Guido implies a specific knowledge of how to properly use the herb. Inflated Lobelia, Indian Tobacco
LobeliaLobelia siphilitica*
(Native)
Great Blue LobeliaThe species epithet is because at one time it was believed the plant was used by native American to treat syphilis. Ingestion of the root can cause vomiting. It should be considered poisonous. References: * Wildflowers of Tennesse by Jack B. Carman * National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers EasternGreat Blue Lobelia
LobeliaLobelia spicata*
(Native)
Palespike LobeliaFound in most states except the far west, Palespike Lobelia grows 1 to 4 feet tall, with alternating lanceolate leaves that are short relative to the height of the plant.Palespike Lobelia
LoosestrifeLythrum salicaria*
(Introduced)
Purple Loosestrife, Rosy Strife, Kill WeedLythrum is a fairly small genus with about 36 species worldwide, with 13 species found in the United States, only 6 of which are native.

The species presented here, Lythrum salicaria, Purple Loosestrife, is the most widely distributed species, and it is not a native. Introduced as an ornamental from Eurasia in the 1800s, this is a highly invasive (but, unfortunately, attractive) weed, especially in northeastern parts of the United States. It is found in damp grasslands and banks of rivers and streams in every state except Florida, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is a threat to wetlands in all of them. It is prohibited in at least 33 states - DO NOT CULTIVATE THIS PLANT even though it continues to be sold by some nurseries, claiming that the plants they are selling are sterile - they may be right, but they may be incorrect, and it is not worth the risk.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Purple Loosestrife, Rosy Strife, Kill Weed
LopseedPhryma leptostachya*
(Native)
Lopseed, American LopseedPhryma is a monotypic (single species) genus, or two species if you consider the Asian Phyrma a separate species (Phryma oblongifolia.) The respected authority Weakley subscribes to the two-species definition based on results of a 2006 analysis by Nie, et al, although most publications list the Asian plant as a variety or subspecies of Phryma leptostachya. I don’t know if this is because most authorities still consider Phyrma to be monotypic, or if it is simply because it takes time for the predominance of published works to be refreshed. Further, Phryma was the only genus in the Phrymaceae family for about 150 years (Schauer, 1847), although in the latter part of the 20th century most authorities placed Phyrma in Verbenaceae (Verbena family, Cronquist,1981), leaving Phrymaceae vacated. Now, based on work published in 2002 (Beardsley & Olmstead), Phrymaceae contains contains 11 genera with about 190 species, most in western North America; most moved from the Scrophulariaceae (Figwort) family. To further confuse the family relationships, later work (examples - Tank et al in 2006 and Barker et al in 2012) has suggested that Phrymaceae contains as many as 20 genera and 240 species.

However you classify it, Phryma leptostachya is found in the eastern two-thirds of the United States and Canada (Wikipedia description: “roughly, everywhere east of the Rocky Mountains”), plus in California, where it is a “garden waif” - not native, not naturalized, but surviving in gardens. It is Possibly Extirpated in Maine.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Lopseed, American Lopseed
LotusNelumbo lutea*
(Native)
American Lotus, Water Lotus, Water Chinquapin, Yellow LotusNelumbonaceae – the Lotus-lily family - is monotypic - Nelumbo is the only genus in the family. There are two species of this aquatic plant, both found in the United States. Nelumbo nucifera - Sacred Lotus - is an introduced species, and has white or pink tepals, and has naturalized as a garden escapee in a number of states in the eastern half of the U.S., tending toward the southern part. Nelumbo lutea is native to the United States, and has a much wider distribution than its introduced cousin. It has pale yellow tepals, so pale in some cases that they appear to be white. The tepals fall off sooner on N. nucifera than they do on N. lutea.

The Lotus name is shared with another unrelated plant genus in the Fabaceae (Pea) family, which goes by the common name Trefoil (although there are plants commonly called Trefoil which are not in Lotus.) Bird’s-foot Trefoil is probably the most commonly known species in Lotus.

Nelumbo lutea - American Lotus - is threatened or endangered in Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI
American Lotus, Water Lotus, Water Chinquapin, Yellow Lotus
LousewortPedicularis canadensis
(Native)
Wood Betony; Canadian LousewortCanadian Lousewort is found throughout the eastern 2/3 of the United States and Canada, all the way down into northern Florida. It has long been considered as having medicinal properties.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Wood Betony; Canadian Lousewort
Maidenhair FernAdiantum pedatum
(Native)
Northern Maidenhair, Five-Fingered Maidenhair FernWhile not a flowering plant, the beauty of Maidenhair Fern warrants a place on this website. There are 28 species of Adiantum - Maidenhair Fern - in the United States (200 worldwide,) but only 3 with wide distribution - A. aleucitum - a western species (sometimes classified as a subspecies of A. pedatum), A. Adiantum capillus-veneris - found mostly in the southern part of the United States, and this species, A. pedatum - Northern Maidenhair Fern, which is found in most of the eastern 2/3 of the country.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Northern Maidenhair, Five-Fingered Maidenhair Fern
MapleAcer rubrum
(Native)
Red Maple, Swamp Maple, Soft MapleThere are 129 species in the Acer genus, but less than 20 are native to North America. Red Maple is found in 33 states across the eastern half of the United States. This tree can get to be 60 feet tall, and has beautiful red flowers in late winter or early spring, and beautiful yellow, red, or red & yellow leaves in the fall.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Red Maple, Swamp Maple, Soft Maple
Mariposa LilyCalochortus bruneaunis*
(Native)
Bruneau Mariposa Lily, Pinyon Mariposa(I had previously identified this as Calochortus eurycarpus, White Mariposa Lily. Upon further research I have decided it is Calochortus bruneaunis, Bruneau Mariposa Lily.)

Bruneau Mariposa Lily has a striking flower with 3 showy petals and 3 white sepals which are shorter than the petals. The flower is atop a 12 to 18 inch stem. The leaves are basal, linear, and usually wither by the time the plant blooms.
Bruneau Mariposa Lily, Pinyon Mariposa
MayapplePodophyllum peltatum*
(Native)
Mayapple Mayapple Mayapple
MayflowerMaianthemum racemosum*
(Native)
False Solomon's Seal, Feathery False Lily of the Valley, Solomon's PlumeSmilacina racemosa is a synonym of Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link ssp. racemosum (eastern variety), according to USDA Plants Database, which also lists 'Feathery False Lily of the Valley' as the common name. I think the False Solomons Seal name is more appropriate due to the similarity of the plant to Solomon's Seal, and I also think it is in more common use, at least in the Southeastern U.S.

The members of the Smilacina genus were reclassified into the genus Maianthemum in the late 20th century, based on work by LaFrankie, published in 1986. There is some evidence that there has been some effort to move Maianthemum from the Lily family into the Butcher's Broom family, but it appears that has not been widely accepted.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
False Solomon's Seal, Feathery False Lily of the Valley, Solomon's Plume
MayflowerMaianthemum stellatum*
(Native)
Starry False Solomon’s Seal, Starry False Lily of the Valley, Starflower False Solomon's Seal Star-flowered Solomon’s PlumeMaianthemum stellatum is officially listed as Endangered or otherwise protected in Arizona, Kentucky, Maryland, and Tennessee. It is found throughout the United States except in the Southeast and in Hawaii, being based in Georgia I had never seen it before a spring visit to Idaho. The most widespread of the five U.S. Maianthemum species (there are 30 worldwide) is M. racemosum, which is found in every state except Hawaii. Some authorities place this plant (along with 3 other Maianthemum) in the Smilacina genus.

Found in:
AK, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Starry False Solomon’s Seal, Starry False Lily of the Valley, Starflower False Solomon's Seal Star-flowered Solomon’s Plume
MayweedAnthemis cotula
(Introduced)
Mayweed, Stinking Chamomile, Dog FennelAnthemis cotula is an introduced species which is now found in every state in the United States in in most of Canada. It can be invasive, and is officially listed as a noxious weed in Colorado and Nevada.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Mayweed, Stinking Chamomile, Dog Fennel
MayweedMatricaria discoidea*
(Introduced)
Pineapple Weed, Wild Chamomile, Rayless Chamomile, Disc MayweedDon’t be fooled by the USDA Plants Database map to the right which shows Matricaria discoidea as an introduced plant throughout its range the United States and Canada. That’s because the USDA uses a single classification for the lower 48 states, and in true democratic fashion, the majority has won. This plant is native to the northwestern states (as well as parts of Asia) but after the opening of the west (and discovery of the species) by the Lewis and Clark expedition, has spread outward from those states, and is now found in almost every state in the United States as well as much of Canada.

The plant gets its Pineapple Weed common name comes from the strong scent, when crushed reminiscent of Pineapple. It is reported to be an acceptable plant for making chamomile tea, although another species in the genus, Matricaria chamomilla, is the most commonly used plant for chamomile tea.

Found in:
AK, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Pineapple Weed, Wild Chamomile, Rayless Chamomile, Disc Mayweed
MazusMazus pumilus*
(Introduced)
Japanese MazusThe Mazus genus probably has been feeling like an unwanted 19th century orphan lately, being bounced around from family to family. Originally placed in Scrophulariaceae, a 2002 study by Beardsley and Olmstead placed Mazus, Lancea, and Mimulus in the long-neglected Phrymaceae family. Hardly having time to get comfortable there, publications in 2009 (D. C. Albach et al.) and in 2011 (J. L. Reveal) resulted in the circumscription of a new family - Mazaceae, when Mazus and Lancea were shorn of their close relationship with Mimulus (and others) and place as the only two genera in that new family. Since, as of January 2014 the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) has yet to accept this new classification and still has Mazus in Phrymaceae (USDA Plants Database continues to list it in Scrophulariaceae) and I usually follow ITIS in these family squabbles, I am placing Mazus pumilus in Phrymaceae until it’s had time to settle into Mazaceae.

Mazus pumilus (syn. Mazus japonicus,) an annual, is one of about 30 species in the genus, but one of only two found in North America. It and Mazus miquelii (Creeping Mazus,) a perennial, are both introduced species, and both are natives of eastern Asia. Mazus miquelii has a slightly larger flower, and is prone, whereas Mazus pumilus is an upright plant. M. miquelii also has a much smaller distribution in the United States, being found in only 8 states, while M. pumilus is found throughout much of the eastern United States as well as in the Pacific coast states, a total of 29 states. They are both found in lawns and other man-disturbed habitats.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WI, WV
Japanese Mazus
Meadow BeautyRhexia mariana
(Native)
Maryland Meadow Beauty, Pale Meadow BeautyOne of our beautiful summer wildflowers.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Maryland Meadow Beauty, Pale Meadow Beauty
Meadow ParsnipThaspium barbinode*
(Native)
Hairyjoint Meadow ParsnipHairy Meadow Parsnip. Named from stiff hairs at the stem branches on most plants.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Hairyjoint Meadow Parsnip
Meadow-rueThalictrum thalictroides*
(Native)
Rue AnemoneLow-growing spring wildflower of the eastern United States; less than a foot tall. Blossoms are pink to pure white with distinctively-shape pistils.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Rue Anemone
Meadow-rueThalictrum occidentale
(Native)
Western Meadow-rue, Western Meadowrue, Meadow RueThalictrum occidentale is a western species of Meadow Rue, and is found at elevations up to about 10,000 feet.

There is much disagreement over the classification of the species within the Thalictrum genus, as well as difficulty differentiating between some of the species. The plant represented here might be Thalictrum venulosum rather than Thalictrum occidentale - it is difficult to tell without inspecting the seed pods. Some authorities consider Thalictrum confine to be a variety of Thalictrum venulosum, while most currently classify them as separate species.

Found in:
AK, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, WA, WY
Western Meadow-rue, Western Meadowrue, Meadow Rue
Meadow-rueThalictrum revolutum*
(Native)
Skunk Meadow Rue, Waxyleaf Meadowrue, Purple Meadow-rueA wind pollinated, dioecious plant of late spring to mid-summer. As with all Thalictrum species, T. revolutum does not have petals, but rather inconspicuous sepals. It gets its Skunk Meadow Rue common name from the odor of the crushed vegetation. This plant is found in a large swath of the United States except for a number of states in the northwestern quadrant. It is also found in much of eastern Canada. It is Endangered in Iowa and “Historical” in Rhode Island.

The common name "Purple Meadow-rue" is also shared with Thalictrum dasycarpum, or perhaps that Rhode Island listing is a result of a mistaken identification, since there is some confusion among the species in the genus.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Skunk Meadow Rue, Waxyleaf Meadowrue, Purple Meadow-rue
MelothriaMelothria pendula*
(Native)
Creeping Cucumber, Guadeloupe Cucumber, Squirting CucumberWhile there are about 12 worldwide, there is only 1 species in the Melothria genus in the United States - Melothria pendula. The Cucumber family (Cucurbitaceae) is primarily a family of tropical and subtropical species. Melothria pendula is one of the rare temperate ones, growing in the eastern half of the United States as far north as Illinois, Indiana, and Pennsylvania. It is Threatened in Illinois, Endangered in Maryland, and believed Extirpated in Indiana.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA
Creeping Cucumber, Guadeloupe Cucumber, Squirting Cucumber
MilkvetchAstragalus canadensis*
(Native)
Canada Milkvetch, Little RattlepodThe Astragalus - Milkvetch - genus is huge with over 2300 species worldwide and more than 400 species in the United States. I have photographed a couple of Milkvetches in Idaho, but with over 60 candidate species in Idaho, identification to the species was intimidating. I had almost decided just to publish a genus page rather than a species page when I heard about the general location of the plant presented on this page. Since there are only three Astragalus species known in Georgia, and two of those are in the coastal plains, confirming the identity of this one by location - there is only one location in Georgia where has been found - and using other attributes only for confirmation became rather easy. Astragalus canadensis is one of the more widespread species of Milkvetch, being found in open woods and riverbanks throughout most of the United States except New England, Florida, and Arizona. It is also found in most of its namesake country, Canada.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada Milkvetch, Little Rattlepod
Milkweed Asclepias quadrifolia*
(Native)
Fourleaf MilkweedFourleaf Milkweed Fourleaf Milkweed
MilkweedAsclepias verticillata*
(Native)
Whorled MilkweedAsclepias verticillata has the typical milkweed blossom shape, but has very narrow leaves in whorls of 3 to 6 up the stem. The plant is normally erect; this specimen was hanging horizontally over a road bank. Whorled Milkweed
MilkweedAsclepias tuberosa*
(Native)
Butterfly Milkweed, Butterfly Weed, Pleurisy Root, Orange MilkweedBeautiful milkweed with blossoms ranging from red thru orange to yellow. It is threatened/endangered in Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Butterfly Milkweed, Butterfly Weed, Pleurisy Root, Orange Milkweed
MilkweedAsclepias variegata*
(Native)
White Milkweed, Redring Milkweed, Variegated MilkweedWhite Milkweed is a native plant found in much of the eastern half of the United States outside of New England. It is listed as endangered in Connecticut, New York, and PennsylvaniaWhite Milkweed, Redring Milkweed, Variegated Milkweed
MilkweedAsclepias syriaca*
(Native)
Common Milkweed, SilkweedThis native milkweed is found in 38 of our 50 states and in much of Canada. It is listed in several weedy or invasive lists, so consider the impact on your area before propagation. In my opinion, it should be allowed to grow unles there is an overriding reason to destroy a plant's population, since milkweed is an important part of the ecosystem, providing food and habitat for many insects.

The milky white, sticky sap is reported to be toxic, but with appropriate preparation, several parts of the plant are reported to be edible, according to Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians .
Common Milkweed, Silkweed
MilkweedAsclepias viridis*
(Native)
Antelope-Horn Milkweed, Green Antelopehorn, Spider Milkweed, Green MilkweedAsclepias, Milkweed, is a large genus, with around 100 species total, and over 75 in the United States. There is at least one species in every state except for Alaska. Milkweed is important if for no other reason than the fact that the Monarch butterfly only lays its eggs on Milkweed plants, and the Monarch caterpillar only eats the leaves of the Milkweed plant.

Asclepias viridis is a fairly widespread species, being found in prairies, fields, and other dry open places in eighteen states from Ohio and West Virginia south to Florida and west to Texas and Nebraska. The common name refers to the horn-like appearance of the seedpod; unlike most Milkweeds, the flowers of Antelope-Horn Milkweed do not have horns. The white crab spider lives on the plant, giving it another of its common names.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MO, MS, NE, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, WV
Antelope-Horn Milkweed, Green Antelopehorn, Spider Milkweed, Green Milkweed
MimosaAlbizia julibrissin
(Introduced)
Silk Tree, MimosaMimosa tree, backyard Walker County GA 06/03/2004Silk Tree, Mimosa
MimosaMimosa microphylla *
(Native)
Sensitive Briar, Littleleaf Sensitive-briarThumbnail size flower. Allan Ihrer has suggested that this might be M. nuttallii. USDA, however, does not list that species in Tennessee. I originally identified this as M. quadrivalvis, which is listed both as a synonym of M. nuttallii and M. microphylla, and subsequent investigation indicates M. microphylla is likely the correct identification.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA
Sensitive Briar, Littleleaf Sensitive-briar
MistflowerConoclinium coelestinum*
(Native)
Blue Mistflower, Wild Ageratum, MistflowerBranching Aster 1' to 3' tall with opposite, almost triangle-shaped toothed leaves. Blue disk flowers but no ray flowers.

Synonym Eupatorium coelestinum.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Blue Mistflower, Wild Ageratum, Mistflower
MiterwortMitella diphylla
(Native)
Miterwort, Bishop's CapThe Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GAMiterwort, Bishop's Cap
MiterwortMitella stauropetala
(Native)
Smallflower Miterwort, Side-flowered miterwortSmallflower Miterwort is found in 7 northwestern states (CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY.) It has basal leaves with unique white blossoms in a raceme thinly populating one side of a stalk that may rise to 30 inches high.Smallflower Miterwort, Side-flowered miterwort
Mock OrangePhiladelphus lewisii
(Native)
Lewis’ Mock Orange, Indian Arrowhead, SyringaSyringa (Lewis Mock Orange) is one of 37 species in the Philadelphus - Mock Orange – genus in the U.S. While it is not a true Syringa (the genus name for lilacs,) that name is the one most commonly used name for the plant in Idaho, where it is the state flower. It is a bushy deciduous shrub that can grow more 10 feet high, and is covered with blossoms in spring.Lewis’ Mock Orange, Indian Arrowhead, Syringa
MonkeyflowerMimulus guttatus
(Native)
Yellow Monkeyflower, Common Monkeyflower, Seep MonkeyflowerAccording to the USDA Plants Database, there are 18 subspecies or varieties of Mimulus guttatus, a highly variable plant. This can make it difficult to distinguish from some of the other species, but I’m fairly confident of this identification. It is found throughout much of the western half of the United States, along with a few disjunct populations back east. It grows along streams and in wet areas, even seasonally wet, which gives it the common name “Seep Monkeyflower.”

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, ID, MI, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, NY, OR, PA, SD, UT, WA, WY
Yellow Monkeyflower, Common Monkeyflower, Seep Monkeyflower
MonkeyflowerMimulus nanus*
(Native)
Dwarf Purple Mimulus, Dwarf Purple MonkeyflowerFormerly considered monotypic (single species in the family,) in current classifications Phrymaceae is a small plant family with under 200 species (compare to Asteraceae with over 22,000.) Within the past 10 years, based on research by Beardsley & Olmstead (2002), Mimulus and several other genera were placed in Phrymaceae.

Similar species - Mimulus lewisii is much taller and more leafy, with a more elongated corolla tube.

Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, WA, WY
Dwarf Purple Mimulus, Dwarf Purple Monkeyflower
Morning GloryCalystegia sepium*
(Native)
Hedge Bindweed, Hedge False BindweedCommon morning glory found in ditches, fencelines, roadsides. White to pinkish blossom. Elongated arrowhead-shaped leaf.

Note that there are several subspecies of this plant found in the United States, one of which is non-native. I have not identified this to the subspecies, so there is a possibility that this is a non-native rather than native species. Regardless of native or non-native status, several states list Calystegia sepium as a noxious weed.

Hedge Bindweed, Hedge False Bindweed
Morning GloryIpomoea pandurata*
(Native)
Wild Potato Vine, Man of the Earth, Wild Sweet Potato, Bigroot Morning GloryThis member of the morning glory family, like its cousin the sweet potato, has an edible root - but research it yourself before eating it, and don't eat it raw.Wild Potato Vine, Man of the Earth, Wild Sweet Potato, Bigroot Morning Glory
Morning GloryIpomoea coccinea
(Introduced)
Small Red Morning Glory, Redstar, Starflower, Scarlet MorninggloryTwining vine with cordate leaves to 3 inches and small red/scarlet flowers with a red-orange center to the blossom where the petals meet the corolla tube.

As with many species, there is some disagreement in classification. Floridata calls this a native to the eastern United States, while both the USDA and EFlora list it as an introduced species. In either case, it is listed as a noxious weed in Arizona and Arkansas. It is prohibited to cultivate it in Arizona.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Small Red Morning Glory, Redstar, Starflower, Scarlet Morningglory
Morning GloryIpomoea lacunosa*
(Native)
Small White Morning Glory, Whitestar, Pitted MorninggloryThis pretty little white morning glory is found in most of the eastern half of the United States, west to Texas and Kansas; from Florida north to New York. All Ipomoea species, including Ipomoea lacunosa are prohibited as noxious weeds in Arizona and Arkansas (Ipomoea lacunosa isn’t found in Arizona.) While Small White Morning Glory is a United States native plant, it is not native in its entire range. As expected for such a disjointed population, it is not native to California, where it is currently found in only one county.

The Morning Glory name is applied because these flowers, which can be especially glorious when large numbers are blooming, will close up later in the day as the bright sun shines on them. While most morning glories seem to close tightly, Ipomoea lacunosa just curls its lips - the corolla lobes.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Small White Morning Glory, Whitestar, Pitted Morningglory
Mountain MintPycnanthemum incanum*
(Native)
Hoary Mountain MintUpper leaves have whitish tops. Dense flower clusters have coarse hairs making the cluster seem to be matted. Whitish flowers with purple spots. Crushed leaves have a very strong mint aroma.Hoary Mountain Mint
Mule EarsWyethia helianthoides*
(Native)
White Mule's Ears, White Wyethia, White-rayed WyethiaThe plants of the Wyethia (Mule-ears) genus is found in the western part of the United States. There are 10 classified species, of which two are hybrids. Only three of these are found in Idaho, where these photos are taken. Two of the pure species, Wyethia amplexicaulis and this one, W. Helianthoides, hybridize to form the third classified species found in Idaho, W. Xcusickii.

While White Mule's Ears is a relatively low-growing plant, usually less than 24 inches tall, with the long leaves for which the genus gets its common name being up to 16 inches long.
White Mule's Ears, White Wyethia, White-rayed Wyethia
MulleinVerbascum thapsus*
(Introduced)
Common Mullein, Great MulleinTall plant with woolly leaves diminishing in size as they alternately rise up the sturdy stem-stalk, which is terminated by a tight cluster of showy yellow flowers.Common Mullein, Great Mullein
MulleinVerbascum blattaria
(Introduced)
Moth MulleinAnother mullein with showy yellow flowers that you'll frequently see along roadsides throughout most of the United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Moth Mullein
Mullein FoxgloveDasistoma macrophylla*
(Native)
Mullein Foxglove, Mullein SeymeriaThis is the only species in the Dasistoma genus. It is hemiparasitic – it will attach its roots to the roots of an oak tree and suck moisture and possibly nutrients from the oak. The common name comes from the similarity of the blossom to Mullein and to False Foxglove. The Mullein similarity is what started me looking in the Figwort family for the identification of the plant after I photographed it in Walker County, Georgia. That is the only county in Georgia where the USDA Plants Database has it ilisted. It has a fairly broad distribution, being found in 22 states. It is officially listed as Threatened in Michigan, and of Special Concern in Georgia and Wisconsin.

Synonym: Seymeria macrophylla

Update 07/22/2012: This is another of the species which has been moved from Scrophulariaceae – the Figwort family - into Orobanchaceae – the Broom-rape family. All parasitic members of Scrophulariaceae have been so moved.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, MS, NE, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Mullein Foxglove, Mullein Seymeria
NightshadeSolanum carolinense
(Native)
Carolina Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle, Devil's TomatoNot a true nettle, this is a member of the nightshade genus which includes the garden tomato. The Solanaceae family includes the Irish potato. In spite of the edible cousins, do not eat any part of this plant; as with most nightshades it is highly poisonous.

In spite of being a native plant, the deep-rooted and persistent Solanum carolinense is listed as a noxious weed in 7 of the 44 states where it is found.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Carolina Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle, Devil's Tomato
NightshadeSolanum dulcamara*
(Introduced)
Climbing Nightshade, BIttersweet Nightshade, Woody Nightshade, European Bittersweet, Fellenwort, Blue NightshadeIntroduced from Europe, this plant is now found in much of the United States. It is a member of the Solanaceae family, which contains many edible plants, such as the potato, the tomato, and some peppers, but also includes some quite poisonous plants such as Belladonna (Atropa belladonna.) The Solanum genus itself (the Nightshades) contains potato and tomato, and some parts most plants in the genus (the potato included) are poisonous at different times in their life-cycle. The leaves and unripened berries of Solanum dulcamara are said to be somewhat poisonous, although the bright red, ripened berry is reported to be edible in small quantities - but don’t eat any part of this plant based on my say-so!

Found in:
CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Climbing Nightshade, BIttersweet Nightshade, Woody Nightshade, European Bittersweet, Fellenwort, Blue Nightshade
OnionAllium canadense
(Native)
Wild Garlic, Meadow GarlicWalker County, GA 05/10/2009Wild Garlic, Meadow Garlic
OnionAllium simillimum*
(Native)
Simil Onion, Dwarf OnionAllium simillimum is not a widely distributed plant, being found only in about half of Idaho and only in a few locations in Montana. I observed only at elevations above 5,000 feet, but I don't know if it is purely a plant of higher elevations or not.

Similar species:
  • Allium brandegeei - Brandegee's Onion, which has a longer stem and shorter leaves
  • Allium parvum - Small Onion, which has a flatter stems and leaves
  • Allium tomiei - Many-flowered Onion has much longer, more sharply pointed tepals.

Found in:
ID, MT
Simil Onion, Dwarf Onion
OnionAllium acuminatum*
(Native)
Tapertip Onion, Hooker’s OnionThis is one of the western species in the Allium genus, being found in the 11 westernmost of the lower 48 states. It grows in dry areas at moderate elevations, typically blooming in April thru July. These were photographed along the lower sections of the Kleinschmidt Grade in Idaho.



Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Tapertip Onion, Hooker’s Onion
OnionAllium stellatum*
(Native)
Glade Onion, Prairie Onion, Cliff Onion, Autumn Onion, Lady's Leek, Wild Onion

Note: 9/6/2013 - After seeing more specimens at the location where these photos were taken, and doing further research on Allium cernuum and Allium stellatum, I am not sure whether this is Allium cernuum or Allium stellatum. There is a bit of nod remaining in the umbel, but that is not a certain characteristic. The flowers seem more campanulate than stellate, implying cernuum. The bulb seems more ovate than elongate, implying stellatum. I'm leaning toward cernuum.

The USDA still lists Allium in the Liliaceae family, although some recent classification efforts have moved it into the Amaryllidaceae – Amaryllis - family. Since ITIS lists the genus in Amaryllidaceae, I have included the Allium species in that family here as well.

Glade Onion grows in thin soils over limestone; frequently found in cedar glades. It is also found in rocky prairie soils, and thus in some areas carries the common name Prairie Onion.

Allium stellatum is Endangered in Tennessee, and is not even listed by the USDA as being found in Georgia, although that is where these photographs were taken. The plant was shown to me by Jay Clark, at what is likely the easternmost extent of its range.

Similar Allium Species:
  • Allium canadense – Bulbils present in inflorescence.
  • Allium cernuum – Nodding inflorescence vs the upright inflorescence in A. stellatum.
  • Allium vineale – Bulbils form after or during anthesis. Leaves are round in cross-section.

Found in:
AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, OK, SD, TN, TX, WI, WY
Glade Onion, Prairie Onion, Cliff Onion,  Autumn Onion, Lady's Leek, Wild Onion
OnionAllium cernuum*
(Native)
Nodding Wild Onion, Nodding Onion, Allegheny OnionAllium cernuum is a widely distributed onion, although it is uncommon in parts of its range. It is found from the east coast to the west coast in the United States, missing in 16 states. It is listed as Threatened in Iowa, Minnesota, and New York, but the entire Allium genus is listed as noxious weeds in Arkansas. Allium is a large genus of up to 700 species, nearly 100 in the United States.

The USDA still lists Allium in the Liliaceae family, although some recent classification efforts have moved it into the Amaryllidaceae – Amaryllis - family (and some into Alliaceae). Since ITIS lists the genus in Amaryllidaceae, I have included the Allium species in that family here as well. Some experts consider Allium allegheniense - Allegheny Onion - as a separate species, but ITIS and Flora of North America consider that to be a synonym of Allium cernuum.

All parts of the plant are edible - standard edibility disclaimer applies: DO NOT EAT A PLANT BASED ON INFORMATION ON THIS WEBSITE - I may be incorrect, or you may not have correctly identified the plant.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, DC, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY

Note: Normally all photos I publish are taken in the field. On rare occasions they are taken at my home from a harvested plant. In the case of this plant, due to time constraints in the field most of these photos are from a harvested plant.
Nodding Wild Onion, Nodding Onion, Allegheny Onion
ParsleyErigenia bulbosa*
(Native)
Harbinger-of-Spring, Pepper and SaltHarbinger of Spring is also known as Pepper and Salt due to contrast between dark anthers and white petals. As the common name implies, it is one of the earliest native wildflowers to bloom in the late winter or early spring.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV
Harbinger-of-Spring, Pepper and Salt
Partridge PeaChamaecrista fasciculata*
(Native)
Partridge Pea, SleepingplantBright summer flower whose blossoms arise from the axils of the pinnately-compound leaves, which fold together when touched. Plant to 3 feet tall.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Partridge Pea, Sleepingplant
Partridge PeaChamaecrista nictitans*
(Native)
Sensitive Partridge Pea, Wild Sensitive Plant, Sensitive PeaLow-growing pea with yellow flowers and pinnately-divided leaves. The leaves will sometime fold up when touched. There is a tiny gland on the petiole near the plant stem.

Chamaecrista nictitans is a highly variable species, with 2 subspecies, nictitans and patellaria. Only nictitans is found in the continental US, and that subspecies has 5 varieties. The variety presented here, nictitans, is the most widespread variety.
Sensitive Partridge Pea, Wild Sensitive Plant, Sensitive Pea
PartridgeberryMitchella repens*
(Native)
Partridgeberry, Partridge Berry, Sqaw Vine, EyeberryAn evergreen; the red berries and green foliage of Partridgeberry form appealing mats that grace forest floors, even in winter. The creeping stems of the plant are the source of the species epithet repens.

Mitchella repens is listed as Threatened in Iowa.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Partridgeberry, Partridge Berry, Sqaw Vine, Eyeberry
Passion FlowerPassiflora incarnata*
(Native)
Purple Passionflower, MaypopAccording to unconfirmed information on Wikipedia, the Cherokees called this Ocoee and therefore the Ocoee River is named after this plant, which is the Tennessee State wildflower. Walker County, Ga - June 23, 2009Purple Passionflower, Maypop
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PeaLathyrus latifolius
(Introduced)
Perennial Pea, Sweet Pea, Everlasting PeaVine to 6 feet long with winged stems, petioles, and peduncles which uses petiole-terminating tendrils to climb. One to several pink to magenta butterfly-like blossoms on smooth, unwinged pedicels.

This is a non-native species that can be weedy and invasive, as is indicated by its spread to almost every state in the United States. If you are looking to plant, there are better choices which are native to the United States, such as the Butterfly Pea.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Perennial Pea, Sweet Pea, Everlasting Pea
Pearly EverlastingAnaphalis margaritacea*
(Native)
Pearly Everlasting, Western Pearly EverlastingPearly Everlasting is an attractive plant, and is probably not native to all of its range in the United States, more likely being introduced in many areas as an ornamental. It is native to part of the United States and Canada, and is reported in most states other than those in the deep south.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Pearly Everlasting, Western Pearly Everlasting
PencilflowerStylosanthes biflora*
(Native)
Pencil Flower, Endbeak Pencilflower, Sidebeak PencilflowerAs with all memboers of Stylosanthes, S. biflora has triofoliate leaves and small yellow flowers. This member of the Pea family is found in most of the eastern United States outside of New England, and in the south as far west as Texas. It has also been reported in Arizona, although that report may be erroneous. Arizona, Texas, and Florida are the only states with other Stylosanthes species present in the wild. It is Endangered in Pennsylvania.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Pencil Flower, Endbeak Pencilflower, Sidebeak Pencilflower
PennywortObolaria virginica
(Native)
Pennywort, Virginia PennywortA native of the eastern part of the United States, this small woodland plant is the only member of the genus Obolaria.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Pennywort, Virginia Pennywort
PeonyPaeonia brownii*
(Native)
Western PeonyPaeonia brownii is one of two peonies native to the United States. The other one is Paeonia californica and is found only in California. Paeonia brownii, named for English botanist Robert Brown (1773-1858), is found in that state as well as the 7 northwestern states. There are a couple of non-native Paeonia species that have naturalized in a few eastern states. Paeonia is the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae.

Found in:
CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Western Peony
Perilla, Beefsteak PlantPerilla frutescens*
(Introduced)
Beefsteak Plant, Beefsteak Mint, Perilla MintPerilla frutescens is a monotypic species native to Asia, which has been used as an ornamental and is naturalized in most of the eastern United States. In the west, it is found in the wild in one county in Washington state.

There are reports that this plant is becoming an increasing problem in the eastern seaboard - see Invasive Notes of September 17, 2013 by John Thompson.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, WI, WV
Beefsteak Plant, Beefsteak Mint, Perilla Mint
PeriwinkleVinca major
(Introduced)
Bigleaf Periwinkle, Large Periwinkle, Greater PeriwinklePeriwinkle, both Vinca major and Vinca minor are introduced species which escaped from gardens and have become fairly widely naturalized. V. major has larger leaves than V. minor as well as a larger blossom. V. Minor blossom is usually an inch across or smaller, while V. major may be 1.5 to 2 inches wide.Bigleaf Periwinkle, Large Periwinkle, Greater Periwinkle
PeriwinkleVinca minor*
(Introduced)
Small Periwinkle, Common Periwinkle, Dwarf Periwinkle, Lesser Periwinkle, Creeping MyrtleThis plant, introduced from central and southern Europe, can be weedy or invasive. It is an an attractive groundcover, which is the reason it made its way to the United States and is so widespread.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Small Periwinkle, Common Periwinkle, Dwarf Periwinkle, Lesser Periwinkle, Creeping Myrtle
PhaceliaPhacelia bipinnatifida*
(Native)
Purple Phacelia, Fernleaf Phacelia

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MO, MS, NC, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Purple Phacelia, Fernleaf Phacelia
PhaceliaPhacelia hastata*
(Native)
Silverleaf Phacelia, Timberline Phacelia, Mountain PhaceliaPhacelia hastata may grow to 3 feet tall, although it is sometimes decumbent – the stems lying along the ground. It is a plant of mid to alpine elevations. These were photographed at 3,000' or higher.

Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NE, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY

Note: I have some doubt about this identification - these photos may be of Phacelia heterophylla (Varileaf Phacelia.)
Silverleaf Phacelia, Timberline Phacelia, Mountain Phacelia
PhaceliaPhacelia linearis*
(Native)
Threadleaf Phacelia, Narrow Leaved Phacelia, Carson’s Phacelia, Threadleaf ScorpionweedThe USDA Plants Database lists 159 species of Phacelia in the United States, with the genus being absent only in 5 states. Most of the species are found in the western half of the country, and Phacelia linearis is among them, being found in the northwestern quadrant as far south as Utah, Nevada, and northern California. Its easternmost range is a single county (Pennington) in South Dakota. I suspect the disjunct populations in Connecticut and Maine are not native. It is found in sagebrush scrub and dry, open woods (not your typical Connecticut or Maine habitats.)

Found in:
CA, CT, ID, ME, MT, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Threadleaf Phacelia, Narrow Leaved Phacelia, Carson’s Phacelia, Threadleaf Scorpionweed
PhaceliaPhacelia purshii*
(Native)
Miami Mist, Purple ScorpionweedThe Phacelia genus is classified by some as in the Hydrophylloideae subfamily of Boraginaceae, while other authorities believe that subfamily should be classified as the separate family Hydrophyllaceae. I currently show it in the separate Hydrophyllaceae family, but am not sure whether that separation will stick or not.

Thanks to Mike Christison of the Georgia Botanical Society for pointing me in the direction of this population of Phacelia purshii, on a flood plain of a small creek at the foot of Pigeon Mountain. Flood plains and moist forest slopes are the normal habitat for Phacelia purshii, which is found in 20 states in the eastern half of the United States. Phacelia purshii was discovered by Frederick Pursh, a German botanist who spent more than two decades in North America in the 18th and 19th centuries. The plant is similar to the smaller, white-flowered P. fimbriata, Fringed Phacelia. P. boykinii and P. bicknellii are usually considered synonyms by most authorities, although there is some indication that there may be reason to consider these separate species.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, NC, NJ, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, WV
Miami Mist, Purple Scorpionweed
PhloxPhlox pilosa
(Native)
Downy Phlox Downy Phlox, Chilhowee Mountain, Polk County, TN 05/08/2004 Downy Phlox
PhloxPhlox paniculata
(Native)
Fall Phlox; Garden phloxNear Big Frog Mountain on FR221, Polk County, TN 06/13/2004 Fall Phlox; Garden phlox
PhloxPhlox amoena*
(Native)
Hairy Phlox, Chalice PhloxPhlox species are difficult to differentiate. Not only do several species share similar shapes in both the flower and the leaves, but the color ranges are broad and similar. An identifying characteristic for this species is the hairy calyx, but glabrous corolla tube.

Phlox amoena is a plant of dry forests, roadsides, and hills. It blooms from April thru July, depending on the part of the range. It is found in the southeastern states.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN
Hairy Phlox, Chalice Phlox
PhloxPhlox divaricata
(Native)
Wild Blue Phlox, Woodland PhloxWild Blue Phlox, Woodland Phlox
PhloxPhlox glaberrima*
(Native)
Smooth PhloxThe Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA 05/04/2009Smooth Phlox
PhloxPhlox diffusa*
(Native)
Spreading PhloxThe Phlox family - Polemoniaceae is primarily a family of the Americas. The Phlox genus has 71 species listed in the USDA plants database. Phlox diffusa has four subspecies listed in the USDA Plants Database, implying significant variation within the species. You have to look at details to differentiate between many of the plants in this genus. Phlox diffusa (the species presented here) and Phlox hoodii (Hood’s Phlox) are similar plants with overlapping ranges and habitats. Here are a few differences, based on what I’ve derived from several descriptions:
  • P. hoodii may be more common at lower elevations; P. diffusa at higher elevations.
  • P. hoodii mounds rarely grow higher than 4 inches above the ground; P. diffusa may be as high as 8 inches.
  • P. hoodii is a somewhat later blooming species, usually starting in late spring.
  • P. hoodii is more densely hairy, having woolly stems and leaf bases. The calyx of P. diffusa is smooth; that may not be the case with P. hoodii.
  • P. diffusa will have solitary blossoms at the end of the branchlets. P. hoodii may have up to three flowers at the end of a branchlet.


Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Spreading Phlox
PigeonwingsClitoria mariana*
(Native)
Butterfly Pea, Atlantic pigeonwingsThere are about 60 species of Clitoria worldwide, but only a few are found in North America. Three are found in Puerto Rico, C. fragrans is native to central Florida, and C. ternatea is a 5-7 foliate introduced species found rarely in a few southern states. Clitoris mariana is the one most likely to be found by the rest of us since it is in most eastern states from New York south to Florida and westward to Minnesota and Arizona. Because of the few other Clitoria species in the United States, Clitoria mariana is more likely to be confused with Centrosema virginianum - Spurred Butterfly Pea - than with another Clitoria species.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WVJuly 12, 2007 Grundy County TN
Butterfly Pea, Atlantic pigeonwings
PincushionChaenactis douglasii*
(Native)
Dusty Maidens, Douglas' Dustymaiden, Chaenactis, Douglas False YarrowThis is a member of the Asteraceae family which has no ray flowers, growing in the western part of the United States and Canada.

Medicinal: According to the Malheur Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University: “Infusion of the plant is used as a wash for chapped hands, insect bites, boils, tumors, and swellings by the Okanagon, and Thompson. A strong decoction of the plants were applied to snakebites by the Thompson, Okanagon, and Paiute”

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Dusty Maidens, Douglas' Dustymaiden, Chaenactis, Douglas False Yarrow
PinkDianthus armeria*
(Introduced)
Deptford Pink, Mountain PinkSome authorities consider this plant, a European native, to be weedy or invasive. This is supported by the fact that this introduced species is now found in the wild in all but three states (not known in Arizona, Alaska, or North Dakota) as well as much of Canada. Deptford is a town in the south of England where the plant grew in such abundance that it became the source of the common name.

Similar to Maiden Pink.

The Mountain Pink common name is more commonly used for the species Centaurium beyrichii.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Deptford Pink, Mountain Pink
PinkrootSpigelia marilandica*
(Native)
Indian Pink, Woodland Pinkroot, Worm grassIndian Pink is an attractive plant, and by the color and shape of the flower, you could guess correctly that it is popular with hummingbirds. It has a number of medicinal properties, and is said to be an effective anti-worming agent (thus the Worm Grass name, presumably.) However, as with many plants used for medicinal purposes, it can be toxic and deadly if ingested improperly.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
Indian Pink, Woodland Pinkroot, Worm grass
PipsissewaChimaphila maculata*
(Native)
Spotted Wintergreen, Pipsissewa, Striped Wintergreen, Striped Prince’s Pine, Striped Prince’s Plume, Dragon’s TongueWhile Spotted Wintergreen or Striped Wintergreen are frequently-used common names for Chimaphila maculata, the Wintergreen name is perhaps more properly associated with the Gautheria genus. The USDA and ITIS list it as Striped Prince’s Pine, presumably to avoid confusion on genus membership. Pipsissewa is also frequently used for this plant, although that is more frequently associated with sister species Chimaphila umbellata, which does not have the stripe on the leaves and more frequently has generally reddish blossoms, and Pipsissewa is commonly applied to the Chimaphila genus in general. Three states (New York, Maine, Illinois) in which Chimaphila maculata, according to the USDA Plants Database, has protected status also list it as Spotted Wintergreen.

Some authorities place Chimaphila in Pyrolaceae - the Shinleaf family rather than in Ericaceae – the Heath family.

There are three species of Chimaphila found in the United States. Chimaphila menziesii - Little Prince’s Pine - is found in several western states as well as British Columbia. Various subspecies of Chimaphila umbellata - Pipsissewa - are found across much of the United States and Canada. Chimaphila maculata - Spotted Wintergreen - is found in forests in every state east of the Mississippi and in Eastern Canada, and disjunctly is also found in the mountains of Arizona, Mexico, and Central America south to Panama.

Found in:
AL, AZ, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Spotted Wintergreen, Pipsissewa, Striped Wintergreen, Striped Prince’s Pine, Striped Prince’s Plume, Dragon’s Tongue
PitcherplantSarracenia oreophila*
(Native)
Green Pitcher PlantThis plant is critically endangered due to habitat destruction, both by development and agricultural use, and by plant collection by carnivorous plant enthusiasts and commercial dealers. There are about 35 known populations now: 5 counties in Alabama, 1 county in Georgia and 1 county in North Carolina. Formerly it was found in 7 additional counties in GA & AL. It was also known in one county in Tennessee, which is why the distribution on the USDA map includes TN. The Nature Conservancy has acquired three sites, the single Georgia location, a site in North Carolina, and one other site.

S. oreophila grows from a rhizome which may produce multiple pitchers, flowers, and leaves. While rhizomes are the principal mode of reproduction, it also produces seeds from its interesting flower.

Reference: Recovery Plan Green Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia oreophila) - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia
Green Pitcher Plant
PlantainPlantago lanceolata
(Introduced)
Narrowleaf Plantain, English Plantain, Buckhorn, Lanceleaf Plantain, Ribwort, Buckhorn, RibgrassOne of several true plantains (genus Plantago) in the NW Georgia area. This invasive plant is now found in every state in the United States, as well as much of Canada.

Article discussing medicinal and food use of the plant:Introducing the Plantains - multi-yielding plants for a permaculture system at Permaculture - Inspiration for Sustainable Living.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Narrowleaf Plantain, English Plantain, Buckhorn, Lanceleaf Plantain, Ribwort, Buckhorn, Ribgrass
PlantainPlantago virginica*
(Native)
Virginia Plantain, Dwarf Plantain, Southern Plantain, Hoary Plantain, Paleseed IndianwheatPlantago virginica is a native plantain found in 38 of the 50 states, although it is naturalized rather than native in parts of its range, probably the western part, and is also non-native in its Canadian distribution. While it can be weedy in sandy or gravelly soils (this example was photographed on the verge of a driveway), it usually is not as much of a week problem as some of the other similar plantains, such as P. major and P. lanceolata, neither of which are hairy, and also have narrower leaves. P. aristata, P. patagonica, and P. pusilla are hairy, but have narrower leaves.

Virginia Plantain is listed of “special concern” in Connecticut.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Virginia Plantain, Dwarf Plantain, Southern Plantain, Hoary Plantain, Paleseed Indianwheat
PlumPrunus virginiana*
(Native)
Chokecherry, Western Chokecherry, Black ChokecherryThere are three varieties of Prunus virginiana in the United States - P. Virginia var. virginiana (Common Chokecherry) is found in the eastern part of the country, and both P. virginiana var. melanocarpa (Black Chokecherry) and P. virginiana var. demissa (Western Chokecherry) are found in the western part. One variety or another is found in every state except Louisiana, Alabana, Mississippi, Florida, South Carolina, and Hawaii. Chokecherry is also found in most Canadian provinces.

There are minor differences between the varieties. Among other differences, var. melanocarpa has black fruit while the others have red or purple fruit. The fruit is edible, but use caution – as with many drupes (fruits with skin, pulp, and hard middle seed) the pit can be poisonous if consumed in large enough quantities (note that this is also true of peach, cherry, and plum pits,) and children have reportedly died from eating a large quantity of chokecherries with pits.

My initial identification of this plant was made using Idaho Mountain Wildflowers .

Although it is a useful wildlife food, it is considered weedy or invasive in the Northeast by some authorities, so use some discrimination in determining whether to propagate the plant.
Chokecherry, Western Chokecherry, Black Chokecherry
PlumPrunus americana*
(Native)
American Plum, Wild PlumThreatened in New Hampshire and Vermont. Shrub to small tree growing up to 25' tall, and can be nearly as wide. It has low branches and thorns up to 3” long, so in the wild it can be part of a nearly impenetrable thicket. The fleshy fruit is edible. The plum fruit is usually around an inch in diameter.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
American Plum, Wild Plum
Plumeless ThistleCarduus nutans*
(Introduced)
Bristle Thistle, Musk Thistle, Nodding Thistle, Nodding Plumeless ThistleCarduus nutans is not native to the United States, but has spread to nearly every state as well as to most of Canada. It is on the official noxious weed list in at least 25 states. Feel free to pull it up and discard it, but use gloves!

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY
Bristle Thistle, Musk Thistle, Nodding Thistle, Nodding Plumeless Thistle
Poison OakToxicodendron radicans*
(Native)
Eastern Poison IvyThe eastern species of Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, is found throughout most of the eastern two-thirds of the US and in eastern Canada. It has much overlap with Western Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, especially in the northern climes. Poison Ivy is well-named, both for its climbing ivy-like vine, and the nature of its oils, to which most people have some degree of allergic reaction. This should be one of the first plants you teach your children to identify since it is so widespread and commonly found. It is classified as a Prohibited Noxious Weed in Minnesota.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Eastern Poison Ivy
Poison OakToxicodendron rydbergii*
(Native)
Western Poison Ivy, Northern Poison IvyThe genus Toxicodendron has 5 species native to the United States- two poison oaks, two poison ivys, and poison sumac. All produce oils which are a significant skin irritant to most people. The oil seems to be harmful only to humans, but animals who have come into contact with the plant may carry the oil to their human companions - watch out where your dog has been rolling.

While it is usually called Western Poison Ivy, it grows throughout southern Canada and the lower 48 United States, except in California and several southeastern states. In the eastern parts of the country it may be known by the common name Northern Poison Ivy.

It is classified as Endangered in Ohio.

Found in:
AZ, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Western Poison Ivy, Northern Poison Ivy
PokeweedPhytolacca americana*
(Native)
American Pokeweed, Pokeberry, Inkberry, Poke Sallet Famously edible leaves for Poke Sallet (Poke Salad), but careful - other plant parts, including the mature leaves, are poisonous. The berries also stain, and can be used to make an ink. While there are many rumors on the Internet that the original U.S. constitution was written in pokeberry ink, and I have not yet found any truly authoritative source of information, the best information I can find implies that this is not the case; the constitution was written with iron-gall ink. However, more likely are the reports that many letters written home during the U.S. Civil War were indeed written with pokeberry ink.

American Pokeweed can be weedy (Twitter friend @kevinsonger even attributes - jokingly, I presume - spontaneous generation to the plant) and is listed officially as such by several authoritative sources, such as the Southern Weed Science Society.

Herbalist Guido Mase of the Vermont Center for Integrative Herbalism tweeted this about the plant: "Root toxic, low-dose lymphatic, cancer / infection support. Berry juice=solar panel." The solar panel reference is about the juice being used in an experimental solar panel to produce electricity, as reported at newsobserver.com.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
American Pokeweed, Pokeberry, Inkberry, Poke Sallet
Pond-lilyNuphar lutea*
(Native)
Yellow Pond Lily, Cowlily, SpatterdockThere seems to be some debate in the scientific community as to the appropriate names for Yellow Pond Lily. There are apparently 8 subspecies of this native plant, or maybe that's 8 separate species, depending on who you ask. I typically use the USDA classification, so for these purposes this is one of the subspecies of Nuphar lutea. One or more subspecies is found in every state in the United States except Hawaii, and in every Canadian province.

Yellow Pond Lily is an aquatic species which has a history of medical and food use.
Yellow Pond Lily, Cowlily, Spatterdock
PorteranthusPorteranthus trifoliatus*
(Native)
Bowman's Root, False Ipecac, Fawn's Breath, Dropwort, Indian HippoBowman's root has been reclassified from Porteranthus trifoliatus to Gillenia trifoliata.

Generally smooth-stemmed, branched, to about 3 feet tall. Leaves have three lanceolate, toothed leaflets that are 2-3 inches long, with a pair of narrow, untoothed stipules that fall off before the plant blooms. Similar species Gillenia stipulata (syn: Porteranthus stipulatus) retains its large, toothed stipules during flowering.

Found in: AL, AR, DC, DE, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, MI, MO, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, WV (USDA)
Bowman's Root, False Ipecac, Fawn's Breath, Dropwort, Indian Hippo
Prairie CloverDalea gattingeri*
(Native)
Gattinger’s Prairie Clover, Purpletassels, Purple TasselsDalea - the Prairie Clovers - is a fairly large genus with around 165 species, mostly of dry area in the Americas. There are more species in Mexico than in the United States, but there are over 60 species in the United States. Since they are found in dry areas it is to be expected that more species are found in the middle and southwestern parts of the United States than in the southeast, but Gattinger’s Prairie Clover, Dalea gattingeri, is one of about a dozen found in the southeast. It is more common in middle Tennessee than in the other parts of its range - a few counties in East Tennessee, a few in Georgia, a few in Alabama, and 1 county each in Arkansas and Missouri. It blooms from May through August in limestone glades and other barrens that spend much of the year very dry.

Dalea purpurea is a similar species with a much wider distribution, as far east as Indiana south to middle Tennessee and northwest Georgia; much more widespread in the great plains states. Some differentiating characteristics are noted below in the descriptions accompanying the photographs.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, MO, TN
Gattinger’s Prairie Clover, Purpletassels, Purple Tassels
Prairie ConeflowerRatibida pinnata*
(Native)
Pinnate Prairie Coneflower, Yellow Coneflower, Grayhead ConeflowerRatibida is a genus of 4 species. Ratibida pinnata is found in prairies, along the borders of woodlands where full sun is available, and in forest openings and limestone outcrops which also receive much sun. The example here was photographed along a roadside.

Distribution is from the prairie states eastward except for a few of the eastern seaboard states, south into a couple of northern Florida counties, although distribution in the east and south is pretty sporadic.

Synonym: Rudbeckia pinnata - The relationship to the Rudbeckia species, such as Rudbeckia laciniata, is clear, and Pinnate Prairie Coneflower has been classified in Rudbeckia in the past.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Pinnate Prairie Coneflower, Yellow Coneflower, Grayhead Coneflower
Prairie ConeflowerRatibida columnifera*
(Native)
Mexican Hat, Long-Headed Coneflower, Red Coneflower, Upright Prairie Coneflower, ThimbleflowerRatibida is a genus of four species in the United States. While Ratibida columnifera is native to the United states, many of the populations in the United States are probably the result of naturalization of garden escapees. USDA Plants Database has it only in Davidson County in Tennessee, so these Meigs County photos are likely from a cultivated colony or escapees. It flowers between March and November, growing in prairies and other prairie-like habitats.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, WI, WV, WY
Mexican Hat, Long-Headed Coneflower, Red Coneflower, Upright Prairie Coneflower, Thimbleflower
Primrose-willowLudwigia alternifolia*
(Native)
Seedbox, Smooth Seedbox, Bushy Seedbox, Rattle-box, Square-pod Water-primroseLudwidigia alternifolia is a plant found in swamps and other moist areas throughout much of the eastern United States and on west into Colorado. It grows to three or four feet tall, although it may have a tendency to recline on other plants, blooming from mid- to late summer.

Thanks to Twitter friend @PineLilyFNPS for the tip that Ludwigia species are larval hosts for the Banded Sphinx Moth - Eumorpha fasciatus fasciatus

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Seedbox, Smooth Seedbox, Bushy Seedbox, Rattle-box, Square-pod Water-primrose
Primrose-willowLudwigia decurrens*
(Native)
Wingleaf Primrose-willow, Wingstem Water Primrose, Willow Primrose, Upright Primrose-willowLudwigia is a genus with over 80 species worldwide, and the USDA Plants Database lists 33 species in the United States and territories, with all but 3 being native. Only 6 states do not have a Ludwigia species (Alaska, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, North Dakota, South Dakota.) Ludwigia decurrens is plant that is native to the southern two-thirds of central and eastern United States. While it is protected as Rare or Endangered in Indiana and Pennsylvania, it has naturalized and is considered an obnoxious weed in California. It grows in wet or marshy area, and is sometimes aquatic. Fragments of the plant will root in a day or two in water.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Wingleaf Primrose-willow, Wingstem Water Primrose, Willow Primrose, Upright Primrose-willow
Purple ConeflowerEchinacea purpurea*
(Native)
Eastern Purple Coneflower, Purple ConeflowerThere are nine species of Echinacea found in the United State, with every state except for our 9 western-most states having at least one species. This species, Echinacea purpurea, is found in more of our states (28) than any of the other species.

Echinacea purpurea is a plant that grows to about 3 feet tall, with single terminal composite blossoms having pinkish-purple rays.

Eastern Purple Coneflower is listed as Endangered in Florida, and as Probably Extirpated in Michigan.
Eastern Purple Coneflower, Purple Coneflower
PussytoesAntennaria plantaginifolia*
(Native)
Plantain-leaf Pussytoes, Woman's TobaccoThe USDA Plants Database lists 40 species of Antennaria in the United States and Canada, and there is at least one species in every state except Hawaii. Antennaria plantaginifolia is one of only six species found east of the Mississippi River, being present in every state east of that geographic boundary as well as in the 5 other Mississippi River bordering states.

Plantain-leaf Pussytoes is stoloniferous – growing from a runner along the ground, and dioecious – male and female flowers are on different plants.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Plantain-leaf Pussytoes, Woman's Tobacco
PygmypipesMonotropsis odorata*
(Native)
Sweet Pinesap, Pygmy Pipes, Carolina beechdrops, Appalachian Pygmy PipesThere are only 1 or 2 species in the Monotropsis genus; some authorities consider the fall-flowering form to be a separate species, M. reynoldsiae, while some classify them as a single species. The spring form blooms from early spring into early summer. The genus name indicates the similarity of Monotropsis to the Monotropa genus. The species epithet - odorata - refers to the strong, sweet aroma of the plant while in bloom. This plant is small and inconspicuous, sometimes not rising above the fallen leaves in its forest habitat, frequently upland woods under oaks and pines, often cohabiting with Rhododendron and Mountain Laurel. The coloration of Sweet Pinesap also adds to the difficulty in spotting it, and it is frequently smelled and not seen.

Sweet Pinesap has no chlorophyll and is mycotrophic - it gets its nutrition from fungi which get their nutrition from the roots of trees. Both Monotropa and Monotropsis are mycotrophic, and have been classified together in a different family - Monotropaceae. While their move to Ericaceae has been somewhat controversial, apparently recent studies support that move.

Monotropsis odorata is a rare plant of the southeastern U.S. It is endangered or threatened in Florida, Kentucky, Maryland, and Tennessee.

Found in:
AL, DE, FL, GA, KY, MD, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV
Sweet Pinesap, Pygmy Pipes,  Carolina beechdrops, Appalachian Pygmy Pipes
Queen Anne's LaceDaucus carota*
(Introduced)
Queen Anne's Lace, Wild CarrotWhile the root of Queen Anne's Lace is edible, use caution! This plant, as with all members of the carrot family, looks quite similar to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), the deadly plant believed to be the source of the poison that killed Socrates.

From the website "Plantllife": There are several stories as to why the wild version is named 'Queen Anne's lace'. Most revolve around King James I's consort - the Queen Anne in question - who is said to have pricked her finger and stained some lace with a drop of blood. Wild carrot's single red flower surrounded by frothy white blossom is quite evocative of this tale.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Queen Anne's Lace, Wild Carrot
RagweedAmbrosia trifida*
(Native)
Great Ragweed, Buffalo Weed, Horseweed, Giant Ragweed, Tall AmbrosiaAmbrosia – the nectar of the gods. An unlikely name for the genus of 24 species native to the United States which causes so much discomfort to us mere humans. At least one of these species is found in every state; Ambrosia trifida is found in all but 3 – Alaska, Hawaii, and Nevada. It is the tallest of the Ambrosia species, sometimes growing to more than 10 feet tall.

The ragweeds generally cause much hayfever, allergic reaction, and asthma exacerbation due to their tiny airborne pollen, which can drift and be inhaled far from the source plant. In addition, this highly persistent plant is considered a noxious weed farmers. According to Wikipedia, it can reduce corn and soybean crop yields by more than 50%.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Great Ragweed, Buffalo Weed, Horseweed, Giant Ragweed, Tall Ambrosia
RagweedAmbrosia artemisiifolia*
(Native)
Common Ragweed, Annual Ragweed, Small Ragweed, Roman WormwoodThe leaves and stem of Common Ragweed are hairy. The leaves are deeply lobed and quite ragged. The inflorescence is a slender, almost candle-like cluster at the end of the stems. The upper flowers are usually male; the lower flowers female.

The ragweeds generally cause much hayfever, allergic reaction, and asthma exacerbation due to their tiny airborne pollen, which can drift and be inhaled far from the source plant. Because of this, other plants which bloom at the same time, such as Goldenrod, frequently get blamed for ragweed-caused hayfever.

Common ragweed is found in every state in the United States except for Alaska, and is found in most of Canada. While it is an introduced species in Hawaii, it is native to continental North America. Two varieties of the plant are native to the eastern United States; a variety found in the all but a few southeastern states is native to Canada but not to the United States, according to the USDA Plants Database. It is officially listed as a noxious weed in Illinois, Michigan, and Oregon, and is thus legally controlled. It is considered a weed due to agricultural considerations in much of the United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Common Ragweed, Annual Ragweed, Small Ragweed, Roman Wormwood
RagwortPackera glabella*
(Native)
Butterweed, Yellowtop, Cressleaf Groundsel, Floodplain RagwortPackera was separated from the Senecio genus and contains what were categorized as the aureoid senecios (I assume this means "golden ragworts") by Asa Gray. The separation was partially based on genetic studies.

There are 64 species of Packera recognized worldwide as of this writing (April 2012), over 50 of which are found in the United States. More than half of the species are glabrous (without hairs) or mostly glabrous, having hairs only in the joints - axils of leaves, and the bases of the flower heads and stems. The epithet for this species, glabella, references the usuallyy glabrous nature of the plant, although it may occasionally have a few hairs in the leaf axils. Packera glabella is found in damp to quite wet soils.

The genus is named for Canadian botanist John G. Packer, the author of Flora of Alberta and Professor Emeritus at the University of Alberta.

It is a weedy plant, and is classified as a Prohibited noxious weed in Ohio

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, OH, OK, SC, SD, TN, TX
Butterweed, Yellowtop, Cressleaf Groundsel, Floodplain Ragwort
Rattlesnake PlantainGoodyera pubescens*
(Native)
Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, Downy Rattlesnake Orchid, Adder’s Violet, Net-leaf PlantainDowny Rattlesnake Plantain is one of the most commonly found orchids in the eastern United States, and is also one of the most widely distributed, being found in 31 states and in the eastern half of Canada. It is, however, Endangered in Florida at the southern end of its range, and is protected in New York as well.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, Downy Rattlesnake Orchid, Adder’s Violet, Net-leaf Plantain
RattlesnakerootPrenanthes serpentaria*
(Native)
Cankerweed, Lion's Foot, Snakeweed, Earthgall, ButterweedFound on the eastern seaboard and Appalachian Mountain states as far south as Florida and as far west as Mississippi, Prenanthes serpentaria is Endangered in Massachusetts and a species of Special Concern in Rhode Island. The species epithet serpentaria and the genus common name Rattlesnakeroot come from the use of a tonic historically made from the roots or the milky juice of the stem as an antidote for the poison of snake bites.

There are similar Prenanthes species found in Haywood County, North Carolina, where these photos were taken. I discounted P. trifoliolata because that species has more angular leaves and fewer heads in each inflorescence. I discounted P. altissima because of the general appearance of the plant vis-a-vis photos at the USDA Plants Database, and the number of phyllaries in that species - normally five, not more than 6.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, MA, MD, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Cankerweed, Lion's Foot, Snakeweed, Earthgall, Butterweed
RedbudCercis canadensis*
(Native)
Eastern RedbudThe Eastern Redbud adds a pink hue to the forest edges in early spring.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Eastern Redbud
RhododendronRhododendron calendulaceum
(Native)
Flame AzaleaFlame Azalea is Endangered in Ohio, and has been Extirpated in Pennsylvania.

Found in:
AL, CT, GA, KY, MD, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
This example from Polk County, TN
Flame Azalea
RhododendronRhododendron catawbiense
(Native)
Catawba Rhododendron, Mountain Rosebay,Purple Rhododendron Catawba Rhododendron, Mountain Rosebay,Purple Rhododendron
RhododendronRhododendron maximum
(Native)
Rosebay Rhododendron, Great Laurel, White LaurelMid-June in the SmokiesRosebay Rhododendron, Great Laurel, White Laurel
RhododendronRhododendron canescens
(Native)
Florida Pinxter, Mountain Azalea, Pink Azalea, Hoary AzaleaThis plant is Endangered in Kentucky, and Commercially Exploited in Florida. AL,

Found in:
AR, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX
Florida Pinxter, Mountain Azalea, Pink Azalea, Hoary Azalea
RhododendronRhododendron periclymenoides*
(Native)
Pink Azalea; Pinxter FlowerOfficially listed in these states:
New Hampshire - Endangered
New York - Exploitably Vulnerable
Ohio - Threatened
Rhode Island - Special Concern

Synonym: Rhododendron nudiflorum

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Pink Azalea; Pinxter Flower
Rose Rosa multiflora*
(Introduced)
Multiflora Rose Rosa multiflora is an invasive, weedy species with thorny, arching branches and fragrant blossoms in the late spring. While it can be attractive while in bloom, I know from personal experience this is not a plant you want want to propagate.Multiflora Rose
RoseRosa woodsii*
(Native)
Woods Rose, Common Wild Rose, Mountain RoseWhile it's pretty easy to identify a wild rose, I am usually reluctant to call a specific species identification because there is usually significant variation within species, and significant similarities between species. For example this plant, Woods Rose (Rosa woodsii) and Nootka Rose (Rosa nutkana) are very similar except for size, and the Nootka Rose generally grows at higher elevations than the Woods' Rose. This time, however, I was walking the 3 mile long Hull's Gulch National Recreation Trail in the Boise Foothills, and there was a sign along the way mentioning some of the plants, among which Woods' Rose was listed.

There are four currently recognized varieties of Woods' Rose. One variety is found only in California (var. glabrata), and one only in California and Nevada (var. gratissima.) Var. ultramontana is the more widespread western variety, and var. woodsii is found through the central part of the United States and Canada, and in eastern Canada – primarily east of the Rockies. Montana and New Mexico have both varieties.

Rosa Woodsii is a species widely distributed across much of western and middle America and prefers moist conditions, but can adapt to an extremely wide variety of soils. Primary thicket growth is by rhizome.

Woods' Rose is a shrub that grows to 6 or 7 feet tall, with many red, thorny canes forming what may be almost impenetrable thickets, a good cover for birds and small animals. The thorns are straight or slightly curved, covering primarily the lower portion of the stems.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WI, WY
Woods Rose, Common Wild Rose, Mountain Rose
RoseRosa palustris*
(Native)
Swamp Rose, Marsh RoseRosa palustris is found in every state east of the Mississippi River, as well as 4 states on the west side of that river. It is also found in eastern Canada. As the common names indicate, it is a shub of wetlands that grows up to 7 feet tall, and will even grow in standing water. Similar Rosa virginiana is a plant of drier ground.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Swamp Rose, Marsh Rose
RoseRosa canina*
(Introduced)
Dog Rose, Dog Brier, Common BriarThis white to pale pink wild rose originated in Eurasia. It is been known as the Dog Rose since ancient times - reportedly Pliny the Elder, born in the time of Christ, believed that the root could cure the bite of a mad dog, and used that to explain the origin of the common name. In spite of the positive attributes of this introduced species, it can be invasive or weedy, so use caution where you let it grow.

It is found now in at least 27 states. Based on the distribution pattern, it looks to me like it was introduced on both coasts and spread toward the middle of the United States. That pattern also applies to Canada. Synonym: Rosa corymbifera

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, TN, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV
Dog Rose, Dog Brier, Common Briar
Rose GentianSabatia angularis*
(Native)
Rose Pink, Bitterbloom, Square-stemmed Sabbatia, Rose GentianUpright plant 2' to 3' tall, opposite mostly ovate leaves that appear to be sessile. 5-petaled blossom with distinct yellow-green pentagonal center, which is has a red outline.Rose Pink,  Bitterbloom, Square-stemmed Sabbatia, Rose Gentian
Rose GentianSabatia capitata*
(Native)
Appalachian Rose Gentian, Cumberland Rose GentianRecorded as found in only 4 states (AL, GA, NC, TN), Sabatia capitata is legally protected, listed as Rare in Georgia, where it is known in 7 counties, and listed as Endangered in Tennessee, where it is known only in 2 counties – Hamilton and Sequatchie. It is listed as "S2" - some level of endangered - in Alabama. The research that I've done so far implies that it is likely extinct in North Carolina.

Found in:
AL, GA, NC, TN
Appalachian Rose Gentian, Cumberland Rose Gentian
RosemallowHibiscus moscheutos*
(Native)
Swamp Rose Mallow, Crimsoneyed Rosemallow, Marshmallow, Woolly Rose Mallow, Hairy-fruited HibiscusI believe what is currently represented on this page is Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. lasiocarpos. Many publications still reflect this plant as a separate species, Hibiscus lasiocarpos - Rosemallow, Woolly Rose Mallow. However, I typically use ITIS when I find conflict with the scientific name of a plant, and in ITIS the accepted name is Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. lasiocarpos. My rationale for thinking this ssp. lasiocarpos is the red stems and leaf veins. I have combined the separate range information from the USDA Plants Database in the list below, while the USDA range map on this page shows only the range of Hibiscus moscheutos without including Arkansas, and California, states where lasiocarpos is found but other varieties and subspecies of Hibiscus moscheutos are not found. Note that the Jepson Flora Project of California plants treats this as Hibiscus lasiocarpos Cav. var. occidentalis as of July 23, 2013.

Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. lasiocarpos is Rare or Endangered in Indiana and California.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI, WV
Swamp Rose Mallow, Crimsoneyed Rosemallow, Marshmallow, Woolly Rose Mallow, Hairy-fruited Hibiscus
RosinweedSilphium pinnatifidum*
(Native)
Cutleaf Rosinweed, Cutleaf Prairie Dock, Tansy RosinweedRosinweeds look very similar to sunflowers, but the seeds form from the ray flowers in rosinweeds, and from the disk flowers in sunflowers. Silphium pinnatifidum can be to 10' tall, and has numerous heads on branching, nearly leafless stems. S. pinnatifidum is considered by some botanists to be a variety of S. terebinthinaceum, with the primary difference being the deeply lobed (almost to the central vein) leaves in S. pinnatifidum. The basal floret of leaves in S. terebinthinaceum are spade-like.

Found in:
AL, GA, IL, IN, KY, TN, WI
Cutleaf Rosinweed, Cutleaf Prairie Dock, Tansy Rosinweed
RosinweedSilphium mohrii*
(Native)
Mohr's Rosinweed, Shaggy RosinweedDescription: Very hairy plant to 6 feet tall, found in only a few counties in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee.Mohr's Rosinweed, Shaggy Rosinweed
RosinweedSilphium trifoliatum*
(Native)
Whorled Rosinweed, Three-leaved RosinweedSilphium triofliatum is listed as a variety of S. asteriscus in Flora of North America, but ITIS continues to list it separately, although no longer with varieties, formerly var. trifoliatum and var. latifolium. Var. latifolium has opposite rather than whorled leaves. I expect that when all the updating is done, S. trifoliatum will be gone, and listed only as varieties of S. asteriscus.

Endangered in Illinois

Found in:
AL, DC, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Whorled Rosinweed, Three-leaved Rosinweed
SageSalvia lyrata*
(Native)
Lyreleaf SageLyreleaf Sage is a member of the mint family. Leaves are primarily basal, are oblong and deeply pinnately lobed. The plant is 1 to 2 feet tall, and blossoms in late spring or early summer. It can dominate open fields during its blooming season. The genus name Salvia implies the many medicinal purposes for which many of the 95 species in the genus are used.Lyreleaf Sage
SaxifrageMicranthes petiolaris*
(Native)
Michaux's Saxifrage, Mountain SaxifrageBased on genetic studies the Saxifraga genus has been split up, with some species remaining in Saxifraga, one being classified in the monotypic genus Cascadia, and 47 species in the new genus Micranthes. There are only eight native North American Saxifraga species remaining in that genus, there are over forty in Micranthes. The easiest diagnostic for Micranthes vs Saxifraga is that the former has only basal leaves (or any cauline leaves may be crowded at the bottom of the stem,) while the latter (Saxifraga) will also have cauline leaves, although they may be very small.

Michaux’s Saxifrage, formerly Saxifraga michauxii, is now classified as Micranthes petiolaris. While many authors still classify this as Saxifraga michauxii, I typically follow the ITIS classification when there is dispute or transition, so am including it as Micranthes petiolaris. I will continue to use Saxifrage as the genus common name so that Saxifraga and Micranthes species will be listed together in the lists ordered by common name, but ITIS lists Micranthes as Alpine Saxifrage.

Michaux’s Saxifrage is found on wet rocky places such as rock walls, boulder fields, and seeps in the Appalachian mountains from Maryland south to Georgia. The plants presented here were photographed on a rock wall along the Clingman’s Dome parking lot in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

Found in:
GA, KY, MD, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV
Michaux's Saxifrage, Mountain Saxifrage
SaxifrageMicranthes virginiensis*
(Native)
Early Saxifrage, Virginia Saxifrage, Everlasting, Lungwort, Sweet WilsonBased on genetic studies the Saxifraga genus has been split up, with some species remaining in SaxifragaCascadia, and 47 species in the new genus Micranthes, although more recent work has some authorities placing a few species inHydatica rather than Micranthes. There are only eight (or fewer) native North American Saxifraga species remaining; there are over forty in Micranthes. The easiest diagnostic for Micranthes vs Saxifraga is that the former (Micranthes)has only basal leaves (or any cauline leaves may be crowded at the bottom of the stem,) while the latter (Saxifraga) will also have cauline leaves, although they may be very small.

Micranthes virginiensis, formerly classified as Saxifraga virginiensis, is one of the more widely distributed species in the genus, being found in almost all of the eastern United States and Canada. It grows on rock outcrops and moist forest slopes, and, as indicated by the common name, blooms relatively early in spring.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Early Saxifrage, Virginia Saxifrage, Everlasting, Lungwort, Sweet Wilson
Sea PurslaneSesuvium portulacastrum*
(Native)
Sea Purslane, Sea Pickle, Shoreline SeapurslaneThis is a prostrate, succulent herbaceous plant of dunes and beaches along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern Atlantic Coast. The stems and leaves are edible, and have a salty pickel-like flavor, giving it the alternate common name of Sea Pickle.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, HI, LA, MS, NC, PA, SC, TX
Sea Purslane, Sea Pickle, Shoreline Seapurslane
SelfhealPrunella vulgaris*
(Native)
Heal-All, Common SelfhealNorth Georgia, Oct 2004. Used as herbal remedy for throat ailmentsHeal-All, Common Selfheal
SennaSenna marilandica*
(Native)
Southern Wild SennaMember of the pea family with pinnate leaf structure and dense flower clusters in the leaf axils in the upper part of the plant.Southern Wild Senna
SennaSenna obtusifolia*
(Native)
Sicklepod, Sicklepod Senna, Java Bean, Blunt-leaf Senna, Chinese Senna, Arsenic WeedSynonym: Cassia obtusifolia

ITIS and USDA list Senna obtusifolia as native to much of the eastern United States, especially the southern part, and is introduced in Hawaii as well as in California, where it is found only in Riverside County. It is classified as a Rare plant in Indiana, but is considered weedy or invasive in other parts of the country, including California, where it is classified as a Noxious Weed. It is also found in South America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Wikipedia indicates that it is native to China. The USDA Plants Database indicates that 59 species of Senna are found in North America; most of those in the continental United States are in the southwest (including the area around Texas in that categorization.)

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Sicklepod, Sicklepod Senna, Java Bean, Blunt-leaf Senna, Chinese Senna, Arsenic Weed
Serviceberry, Juneberry, ShadbushAmelanchier laevis*
(Native)
Allegheny Serviceberry, Smooth ServiceberryThe taxonomy of Amelanchier is a very confusing, not only to me but also to professionals. The genus has been divided into as few as 6 species and as many as 33. The USDA Plants Database currently lists 20 species with 28 total taxa. The University of Maine Department of Biological Sciences has excellent information about Amelanchier where they list 16 species and and 19 total taxa. ITIS lists 19 species.

Several Amelanchier are shrubs which do not achieve tree status, but A. laevis can be found as a shrub or a tree up to 25 feet tall. Most species are more or less hairy in their inflorescence and leaves, but A. laevis earns its Smooth Serviceberry common name (and its laevis species epithet) by being mostly hairless in those features. Another differentiator among species is petal length, width, and shape. This species has fairly long petals which are a bit broader relative to their length than most other regional serviceberries, and are normally oblong in shape.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Allegheny Serviceberry, Smooth Serviceberry
Serviceberry, Juneberry, ShadbushAmelanchier utahensis*
(Native)
Utah Serviceberry, Pale Serviceberry, Western ServiceberryThe taxonomy of Amelanchier is a very confusing, not only to me but also to professionals. The genus has been divided into as few as 6 species and as many as 33. The USDA Plants Database currently lists 20 species with 28 total taxa. The University of Maine Department of Biological Sciences has excellent information about Amelanchier where they list 16 species and and 19 total taxa. ITIS lists 19 species.

While the USDA lists four species of Amelanchier in Idaho, where these photos were taken, ITIS and the University of Maine have one of those classified as a A. alnifolia var. pumila, and another as a synonym of A. utahensis. Both of these species are relatively short and will usually have multiple stems, so most consider these to be shrubs rather than trees. A. utahensis -Utah Serviceberry - can be up to 15 feet tall. It will have 2 to 5 styles (A. alnifolia - Dwarf Shadbush - will have 4 or 5), 10 to 18 stamens (Dwarf Shadbush has 12 to 15), and the twigs are hairy at flowering and frequently so after flowering, while those of Dwarf Shadbush are usually without hairs at flowering. The final characteristic that swayed me to Utah Serviceberry for this identification are the number of lateral veins in the leaves. Utah Serviceberry has 7 to 13 (or more), while Dwarf shadbush will have 7 to 9.

The fruit of Utah Serviceberry is edible, and is an important food for wildlife, as are the leaves. The foliage of this species shows up earlier than many other plants, providing browse early relatively early in the year.

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, TX, UT, WA, WY
Utah Serviceberry, Pale Serviceberry, Western Serviceberry
Shadow WitchPonthieva racemosa*
(Native)
Shadow Witch Orchid, Hairy Shadow Witch, Racemose PonthievaWhile there are more than 25 Pontheiva species - Shadow Witch Orchids - in the world, there are only 3 found in the United States and its territories. One of them is found only in Puerto Rico, and one only in Florida. The third one, Ponthieva racemosa is found only in 10 southeastern states (although it is also found in Central and South America as well.) As far as I can tell, Ponthieva racemosa is protected in at least 6 or 7 of the states in which it has been recorded due to its rarity and the fragility of its habitat. While I can’t find official indication of a protected status in Georgia and Texas, it is found only in a few locations in those states. It grows in moist areas almost exclusively over calcareous rock - the photos here were taken in a very wet area of thin soils over limestone in a cedar glade. It’s unlikely that you’ll find it blooming in drought years.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA
Shadow Witch Orchid, Hairy Shadow Witch, Racemose Ponthieva
SherardiaSherardia arvensis
(Introduced)
Field Madder, blue fieldmadder, SpurwortThis is the only species in the Sherardia genus found in the United States. While the USDA Plants database does not list it as an invasive species, that is probably because of relatively low economic impact; it is clearly spreading.

The plant grows 4 to 16 inches tall, but will sprawl and form mats with the flowers only a few inches above the ground.

Found in: AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Field Madder, blue fieldmadder, Spurwort
ShortiaShortia galacifolia*
(Native)
Oconee Bells, Acony Bell, Southern Oconee-bells, Northern Oconee-bells, ShortiaThere are five or six species in the Shortia genus, but just this one in North America, according to Flora of North America. The other species are native to Asia, and apparently have not naturalized in North America. Shortia galacifolia is a rare plant, protected as Endangered in both Georgia and North Carolina, and listed as a federal species of concern. There are two varieties - var. brevistyla (which, as implied by the variety name, has shorter styles, as well as shorter corolla lobes) is found only in McDowell County, NC (Northern Oconee-bells.) Var. galacifolia (Southern Oconee-bells) is found in 1 county in Georgia, 2 or 3 counties in South Carolina, and a few counties in North Carolina. There are reports of naturalized populations in Tennessee and Virginia. There is also a very recent discovery of the plant in DeKalb County, Alabama, which has not yet (as of late 2012) been determined as native or naturalized. It grows along streambanks and other moist slopes in areas with high rainfall, usually under the shade of Rhododendron.

The story of the discovery and rediscovery of this rare plant is interesting - its foliage was initially found by botanist Andre Michaux in 1788, and those specimens were discovered in Michaux’s native France by American botanist Asa Gray in 1839. Gray, working on The Flora of North America, determined to find this plant, which he named after American botanist Charles Short. Due to a different interpretation of Michaux’s labelling the specimen as from the “high mountains of Carolina” in 1843 Gray spent several months searching in areas above 5,000’ elevation, well above where it is found. Several other botanists joined the search in subsequent years. Finally, in 1877, 17 year old George Hyams found the plant, which he didn’t recognize, along the Catawba River in North Carolina. His father was an amateur botanist, and sent a specimen to a friend, who in turn informed Asa Gray of the discovery. In 1879 an expedition led by Gray to personally see the plant. In 1888 botanist Charles Sargent found the plant in the area where Michaux first found it, in an area that was inundated in 1973 by the waters of Lake Jocassee, which was built by Duke Power.

Found in:
AL, GA, NC, SC, TN, VA
Oconee Bells, Acony Bell, Southern Oconee-bells, Northern Oconee-bells, Shortia
SilverbellHalesia tetraptera*
(Native)
Mountain Silverbell, Carolina Silverbell, 4-wing SilverbellHalesia tetraptera is a tree with white bell-shaped flowers that persist for about a week in the springtime. Depending on your choice of authority, there are two or three species of Halesia. H. tetraptera, H. carolina, and H. diptera are recognized by the USDA and , but most authorities seem to now classify what was H. Carolina as a subspecies of H. tetraptera. H. diptera, according to an article at Virginia Tech, is not a mountain species and is not found in North Georgia.

I'm breaking with my normal stance of considering ITIS to be authoritative on the valid classification because the following (and others) have chosen to classify H. carolina as a synonym of H. tetraptera.
  • Vanderbilt University
  • NC State University
  • Ohio State University
  • Virginia Tech
  • Richard Ware of the Georgia Botanical Society


H. tetraptera var tetraptera is a smaller tree to 35'. H. tetraptera var monticola can be over 100'. The tree we photographed was a small tree, but since it was clearly a young tree, the height was not indicative of the particular subspecies.
Mountain Silverbell, Carolina Silverbell, 4-wing Silverbell
SkullcapScutellaria ovata*
(Native)
Heartleaf skullcapHairy, square-stemmed plant with blue to violet blossom with white corolla base. Leaves have cordate base attached to long petiole.Heartleaf skullcap
SkullcapScutellaria pseudoserrata*
(Native)
Southern Showy Skullcap, Falseteeth skullcapThere are 45 species of Scutellaria found in United States, 42 of which are native. At least one Scutellaria species is found in every state except Hawaii. S. pseudoserrata is found in 5 southern states – Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

Similar species are S. elliptica, which has blue to violet flowers with white markings and hairy leaves, S. montana, which is almost entirely white with a lavender lower lip, and S. serrata, which may not have the distinct dark lavender lines exhibited by S. Pseudoserrata near the center of the lower lip.
Southern Showy Skullcap, Falseteeth skullcap
SkullcapScutellaria integrifolia*
(Native)
Helmet Flower, Hissopleaf Skullcap, Helmet Skullcap, Hyssop SkullcapScutellaria integrifolia is an early summer wildflower found in fields and open woods. It is usually between 9 inches and 2 feet tall, and may have a branch or two in the stem. The stem and branches are terminated with clusters of blue, pink, or occasionally white flowers.

Endangered in Connecticut and New York, it is found in 23 of our eastern states
Helmet Flower, Hissopleaf Skullcap, Helmet Skullcap, Hyssop Skullcap
SkullcapScutellaria angustifolia*
(Native)
Narrowleaf Skullcap, Small-flowered SkullcapI had difficulty identifying this species of Scutellaria. It was clearly a Skullcap based on the ridge atop the calyx - quite distinct in all the photos. There are five species of Scutellaria in Idaho, but three were quickly eliminated due to leaf structure and flower color. That left me with Scutellaria angustifolia - Narrowleaf Skullcap - and the very similar Scutellaria antirrhinoides - Snapdragon Skullcap. Both species are known in Adams County where I found these plants. S. antirrhinoides is a smaller plant with a shorter corolla, but that’s difficult without a side by side comparison or measurements. In addition, S. angustifolia ssp. micrantha is smaller than ssp. angustifolia, the one I believe this to be. S. antirrhinoides also has more, longer hairs in a throat that is almost closed. The feature that made me decide this must be S. angustifolia is the lighter patch on the lower lip. In the photos and descriptions I’ve found that is a much more pronounced white in S. antirrhinoides, perhaps with some mottling, while in S. angustifolia the lighter coloration is more likely to be a pair of lighter blue streaks rather than distinctly white. I haven’t found confirmation of the consistency of those characteristics.

Found in:
ID, NV, OR, UT, WA
Narrowleaf Skullcap, Small-flowered Skullcap
SkullcapScutellaria elliptica*
(Native)
Hairy SkullcapScutellaria is a large genus, with over 300 species recognized worldwide. There are about 45 species of Scutellaria found in United States, over 40 of which are native. At least one Scutellaria species is found in every state except Hawaii. Scutellaria elliptica is found in 25 states from New York to Texas.

My identification of this plant has a slightly lower level of confidence than most that I choose to publish (it is not a scientific measure of level of confidence - just a gut feel.) The color pattern on the flowers does not match that of many photographs I have found on the Internet and identified as Scutellaria elliptica, although that could be just variability. While it matches the description found in Wildflowers of Tennessee the Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians, Weakley’s key to Scutellaria describes S. elliptica var. elliptica as having glandless leaves, and my photos show glands on the upper surface of at least the leaves from which the inflorescences arise (a characteristic of S. pseudoserrata.) I believe this to be S. elliptica var. hirsuta because:
  • The stem hairs seem longer than what is described for var. elliptica and some stem hairs are glandular.
  • Weakley doesn’t mention leaf surface for var. hirsuta, and since hirsuta is a more glandular variety, it is reasonable that it could have glandular leaf hairs while var. elliptica does not.


Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Hairy Skullcap
SmartweedPersicaria amphibia*
(Native)
Water Knotweed, Swamp Smartweed, Water SmartweedThe Polygonum genus has recently been split into multiple genera, with about 30 species being reclassified in the genus Persicaria. I am following the lead of others in changing this from Polygonum amphibium to Persicaria amphibia. The genus common name for Persicaria is now "Smartweed"; Polygonum had been "Knotweed". The text imbedded in the photos will continue to reflect the old classification.

There are aquatic and terrestrial varieties of Persicaria amphibia; the aquatic variety is more widespread than the terrestrial variety than the terrestrial variety, with the terrestrial variety not generally being found in the Southeast. Leaves are alternate and lanceolate.
Water Knotweed, Swamp Smartweed, Water Smartweed
SmartweedPersicaria virginiana*
(Native)
Virginia Knotweed, JumpseedThe Polygonum genus has recently been split into multiple genera, with about 30 species being reclassified in the genus Persicaria. I am following the lead of others in changing this from Polygonum virginianum to Persicaria virginiana. The genus common name for Persicaria is now "Smartweed"; Polygonum had been "Knotweed". The text imbedded in the photos will continue to reflect the old classification.

Persicaria virginiana is a late summer plant mostly of most woodlands, found in most of the eastern half of the United States.
Virginia Knotweed, Jumpseed
SmartweedPersicaria punctata*
(Native)
Dotted Smartweed, Dotted Knotweed, Water Smartweed
The USDA Plants Database lists 80 species of Polygonum in the United States. However, this genus has recently had 30 species split off into the new Persicaria genus, and several other species moved into Fallopia. Persicaria punctata (Polygonum punctatum) is one of the species of Perisicaria native to the United States, although it is introduced rather than native in several states - Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Hawaii. The only states where it is not found Nevada and Alaska. (The USDA Plants Database map does not show it in Utah, but BONAP, which is likely more current, does show it there. However Flora of North America does not list it Utah, so that presence remains questionable in my mind. It is found in much of Canada.

A key identification feature are the punctate dots or dotted glands on various parts of the inflorescence and perhaps the stem. Most Persicaria species do not have these. A similar species with these punctate dots is Persicaria hydropiper (Polygonum hydropiper) - Marsh-pepper Smartweed - a species introduced from Europe. It must have been an early introduction, because there are reports of its use by native Americans both as a drug for certain ailments and as a food. P. hydropiper has reddish stems vs green for P. punctata, and the achenes of the introduced plant are reported to be dull and roughened versus the smooth, shiny achenes of the native P. punctata.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Dotted Smartweed, Dotted Knotweed, Water Smartweed
SneezeweedHelenium amarum*
(Native)
Bitterweed, Bitter Sneezeweed, YellowdicksCommon weed found in meadows, along roadsides, and other disturbed areas. Some authorities consider it to be weedy or invasive. If cows eat them their milk will have a bitter taste. This plant is a native of the United States.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CT, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI
Bitterweed, Bitter Sneezeweed, Yellowdicks
SneezeweedHelenium flexuosum*
(Native)
Purple-headed Sneezeweed, Purplehead SneezeweedNative to a large part of the United States, Helenium flexuosum has been introduced to and naturalized in parts of eastern Canada. It is a plant growing in damp areas up to about 3 feet tall, branching in the upper part of the plant. The blossoms terminate these stems.

Synonym: Helenium nudiflorum

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Purple-headed Sneezeweed, Purplehead Sneezeweed
SneezeweedHelenium autumnale*
(Native)
Autumn Sneezeweed, Common Sneezeweed, False Sunflower, Staggerwort, Yellow StarHelenium autumnale is the most widely distributed of the eighteen North American Sneezeweeds, being found in all but three states in the U.S. - missing in Hawaii, Alaska, and New Hampshire. While it is native to the United States and much of Canada, it is naturalized in the parts of New England where it is now found. It grows in wet soils, flowering from late summer thru mid-autumn.

Sneezeweeds do not get that name from causing hay fever - the leaves were once made into a snuff that was used to cause sneezing, either expelling evil spirits or relieving congestion - pick the lore you prefer. Interestingly in large quantities all parts of the plant can be poisonous to humans.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Autumn Sneezeweed, Common Sneezeweed, False Sunflower, Staggerwort, Yellow Star
Snow-wreathNeviusia alabamensis*
(Native)
Alabama Snow-wreathAlabama Snow-wreath is a rare decidous shrub with a blackberry-like stem, but the snow-wreath is thornless. It's a native plant found only in 6 states, and is listed as Threatened in its namesake Alabama, in Tennessee, and in Georgia, where it is found only in Walker County.Alabama Snow-wreath
SnowberrySymphoricarpos albus*
(Native)
Common Snowberry, Upright SnowberrySymphoricarpos albus has two varieties - var. albus and var. laevigatus. Var. albus is more widely distributed, being found in most of the northern half of the United States and in the Rocky Mountains south to New Mexico, as well as most of Canada. Var. laevigatus is found in a subset of those states, plus California and Idaho. The plant is Endangered or Threatened in Illinois, Kentucky, Maryland, and Massachusetts, and is Extirpated in Ohio.

The white fruits, from which the common name is derived, are larger than the blossoms; unfortunately I don’t have photos of the fruit, but you can view some at Turner Photographics as well as other places on the Internet.

Found in:
AK, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Common Snowberry, Upright Snowberry
SoapwortVaccaria hispanica*
(Introduced)
Cowcockle, Cow Soapwort, CowherbVaccaria hispanica is either the only species in the genus, and has four subspecies, or, as some authorities say, is one of four species in the Vaccaria genus. In either case, it is a European import, and has been historically found in all but two states - Georgia and North Carolina. However, it is apparently in decline and may now be extirpated in several states. It has an affinity to open fields and waste areas. It grows in pastures, and reportedly was used as fodder, giving the cow reference both in the common name, and in the genus name - vacca being Latin for cow. My further speculation - the Chinese have used its seeds medicinally to promote lactation; that could be a boon to those with a dairy cow; it may have been used in their fodder.

Vaccaria has been included in the genus Saponaria by some authorities.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Cowcockle, Cow Soapwort, Cowherb
Solomon's Seal Polygonatum biflorum*
(Native)
Smooth Solomon's SealSmooth Solomon's seal (P. biflorum) is 1 to 4 feet tall, arching, and is found in rich moist forests thoughout the eastern two-thirds of the United States and Canada. Similar species Hairy Solomon's seal (P. pubescens), has hairy veins on the underside of the leaf.

The name Solomon's Seal references the circular scars on the rhizome left by each year's flower stalk. I have not personally observed this, nor do I know what the seal of King Solomon looked like.
Smooth Solomon's Seal
SpeedwellVeronica persica*
(Introduced)
Bird's Eye Speedwell, Persian Speedwell, Birdeye Speedwell, Winter SpeedwellMay be V. arvensis, but longer flower pedicels imply V. persica, although USDA Plants Database doesn't list V. persica in Walker County, GA as of 03/28/2009. It is a weedy plant, although it apparently is not invasive enough to be restricted in any state. See Speedwell identification for more information on my identification process for this species.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Bird's Eye Speedwell, Persian Speedwell, Birdeye Speedwell, Winter Speedwell
SpeedwellVeronica anagallis-aquatica*
(Introduced)
Water Speedwell, Sessile Water-speedwell, Brook-pimpernell, Blue Water SpeedwellThis is a widely distributed Speedwell, being recorded in all but 5 states. It is also found in most of Canada. It is protected as Endangered or Threatened in Indiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Tennessee.

There is some disagreement as to whether or not V. anagallis-aquatica is native to North America - USDA Plants Database lists it as native in the lower 48 and Canada, but introduced in Alaska. Calflora lists it as introduced in California and widely so in North America - native to Europe. USDA GRIN lists it as native to Europe, Asia, and South America, but not to North America. Flora of Missouri lists it as Introduced.

In addition to native status, the classification of plants included in this genus is debated. There are about 15 synonyms of Veronica anagallis-aquatica. Some experts, including the USDA Plants Database, consider Veronica catenata to be a separate species, while others consider it to be part of Veronica anagallis-aquatica. Veronica catenata is widely considered a native species, and my guess is that is why some also consider V. anagallis-aquatica to be a native plant. Those that consider V. catenata to be a separate species likely classify V. anagallis-aquatica as Introduced. However, some authorities question the native status of V. catenata as well (USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network). I am listing this plant as Introduced, but the USDA map shown on this site will show it as Native to the lower 48.

The Endangered status in three states is based on inclusion of V. catenata within V. anagallis-aquatica.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Water Speedwell, Sessile Water-speedwell, Brook-pimpernell, Blue Water Speedwell
SpicebushLindera benzoin*
(Native)
Northern Spicebush, Wild Allspice, Common SpicebushLindera benzoin is a shrub of moist forest understories, growing to 15-20 feet tall. You can make tea from the aromatic leaves and twigs.Northern Spicebush, Wild Allspice, Common Spicebush
SpiderwortTradescantia subaspera*
(Native)
Zigzag Spiderwort, Wideleaf SpiderwortWhile spiderworts are found in all but 5 states, Tradescantia subaspera is found only in 18 states in the eastern half of the United States. The lovely 3-petaled blossoms melt away when the sun gets on them. According to a quote from 1894 wildflower author George Iles, found at Arthur Lee Jacobson's website, the "Spiderwort" name comes from the ability to draw the sun-melted blossoms out into long threads like a spider's web.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Zigzag Spiderwort, Wideleaf Spiderwort
SpiderwortTradescantia virginiana
(Native)
Virginia SpiderwortVirginia SpiderwortVirginia Spiderwort
SpindletreeEuonymus americanus*
(Native)
Bursting Heart, Hearts-a-bustin', Strawberry Bush.E. americanus is a shrub with thin stems and opposing, shallowly serrated leaves. The bush grows from 4 to 6 feet tall. Fruit is a red 4-lobed capsule. Each lobe splits open in the autumn, giving the name Bursting Heart.

A similar but taller and more northern species is Euonymous atropurpureus - Burningbush.

Thanks to @scgardeningnews for tweeting the South Carolina Native Plant Society Plant Identification website where I saw a photo that made this identification for me.
Bursting Heart, Hearts-a-bustin', Strawberry Bush.
SpindletreeEuonymus atropurpureus*
(Native)
Burningbush, Eastern Wahoo, Spindle Tree, Indian Arrow-WoodWhile Burningbush is the common name listed by the USDA, it is probably more commonly known as Eastern Wahoo. It grows as a shrub or small tree found throughout the eastern and central United States except for Vermont. It is found as far west as Montana. Synonyms are E. carolinensis & E. latifolius.

Wahoo Bark is an herbal medicine that is used for constipation and gall bladder problems, according to Mercy Hospitals.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Burningbush,  Eastern Wahoo, Spindle Tree, Indian Arrow-Wood
SpleenwortAsplenium rhizophyllum*
(Native)
Walking Fern, American Walking FernThere are 28 Spleenworts - the species in the Asplenium genus - found in the United States. Most of these have pinnatifid leaves. Asplenium rhizophyllum is one of the 3 species without those pinnatifid leaves. It is unique in the United States and with an Asian sister plant (A. ruprechtii) are distinctive in the genus in that the leaftips will root, forming sometimes dense clonal patches of the plant. This feature has led some authorities to classify those two species in their own genus, Camptosorus, so a synonym for this plant is Camptosorus rhizophyllus. The plant typically grows in shady areas on mossy boulders and ledges.

This plant is considered rare in much of its range, and enjoys protection in several states (MI, NH, NY, RI, and, I think, NC.) It is protected and possibly extirpate in Maine.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Walking Fern, American Walking Fern
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Spring BeautyClaytonia caroliniana*
(Native)
Carolina Spring Beauty, Wide-leaved Spring BeautySpring Beauty is one of the early wildflowers, normally blooming March through early May, although you may catch a blossom opening in late February in some locations.

Carolina Spring Beauty - Claytonia caroliniana has a pair of stem leaves which are lanceolate-ovate on a distinct petiole. Similar Virginia Spring Beauty - C. virginiana - has narrow, grass-like leaves narrowing into an indistinct petiole.
Carolina Spring Beauty, Wide-leaved Spring Beauty
Spring BeautyClaytonia virginica*
(Native)
Virginia Spring Beauty, Narrow-leaved Spring BeautyEarly spring wildflower that can be 4 to 12 inches tall. Very similar to Carolina Spring Beauty - C. caroliniana - with the primary differentiator being the leaf shape.

It is protected in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island as an endangered or historical species, according to the USDA Plants Database.
Virginia Spring Beauty, Narrow-leaved Spring Beauty
Spring BeautyClaytonia perfoliata*
(Native)
Miner’s Lettuce, Indian Lettuce, Winter PurslaneOne or more of the 28 North American species of Claytonia (Spring Beauty) are found in every state except Florida, Hawaii, and North Dakota. This species, Claytonia perfoliata, is primarily a western species, although disjunct populations have been reported in New Hampshire and Georgia. The USDA Plants Database shows it as introduced to Alaska and native to Georgia and New Hampshire, although I'm going to guess that it is likely an introduced species in those states as well. There are three subspecies of C. perfoliata - intermontana, mexicana, and perfoliata. Since ssp. perfoliata is the only one the USDA lists as being found in Idaho, where these photos were taken, it seems likely that these are ssp. perfoliata :-).

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, GA, ID, MT, NH, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Miner’s Lettuce, Indian Lettuce, Winter Purslane
Spring BeautyClaytonia lanceolata*
(Native)
Lanceleaf Spring Beauty, Western Spring BeautyClaytonia lanceolata is a small, pretty white, pink, or even orange or yellow wildflower of early spring in the western United States, especially in somewhat higher elevations. A similar species is Claytonia multiscapa - also known as Lanceleaf Spring Beauty. C. multiscapa is not as widely distributed, and is a slightly larger plant with narrower leaves and smaller flowers. It won’t be found with pink petals, while C. lanceolata petals may be pink. C. multiscapa will have multiple bracts in the inflorescence, while C. lanceolata will usually have a single bract; sometimes 2. Some authorities have considered C. multiscapa to be part of C. lanceolata and others part of C. flava rather than a separate species. If part of C. flava it would expand the range of that species notably.

Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Lanceleaf Spring Beauty, Western Spring Beauty
SpurgeEuphorbia mercurialina*
(Native)
Cumberland Spurge, Mercury SpurgeThe Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA 03/21/2009Cumberland Spurge, Mercury Spurge
SpurgeEuphorbia corollata*
(Native)
Flowering Spurge, Blooming Spurge, Emetic RootI have just a slight doubt as to whether this is Euphorbia corollata (Flowering Spurge) or E. pubentissima (False Flowering Spurge,) both of which look almost identical in the photographs I've found, and I have not found a description of E. pubentissima sufficiently detailed to allow me to make a feature by feature comparison. The one observation I had that seemed a possible difference is that many of the site which seemed more authoritative showed E. pubentissima with fewer blossoms terminating the stems; occasionally only one. That, plus the fact that I couldn't find anything that indicates that this is not E. corollata has led me to make the call that this is Flowering Spurge. If anyone can point me to good information on differentiation of these two species, I would greatly appreciate it – email me.

The common name Spurge for members of the Euphorbia species is reported to come from the French word meaning purge – this plant has some strong medicinal and potentially poisonous properties, so do not ingest it. Further, the milky white sap is reported to be highly irritating to the skin, possibly even causing blistering. So carefully inspect it closely; it is an interesting plant.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Flowering Spurge, Blooming Spurge, Emetic Root
SpurgeEuphorbia cyathophora
(Native)
Wild Poinsettia, Mexican Fireplant, Fire on the Mountain, Painted Euphorbia, Desert PoinsettiaThis plant is one of a few Euphorbias called “Wild Poinsettia” as a common name – the well-known Christmas Poinsettia is also a Euphorbia species (E. pulcherimma.) While researching for the species name, I came away confused, but after finding this in the online Flora of China, I understood that confusion: “There has been much confusion in the literature between this and the following species, Euphorbia heterophylla.” Based on the Flora of China description, Euphorbia heterophylla may have a pale green marking at the base of the upper leaves where Euphorbia cyathophora has the distinctive red markings which lead to the “Fire on the Mountain” common name. There may also be a color distinction between the glandular stipules on the leaves - brownish on E. cyahtophora, conspicuously purple on E. heterophylla.

This confusion between the two species apparently has led some publications to list Euphorbia heterophylla as a synonym of Euphorbia cyathophora and vice versa, and also to publish photos of one of the species as being the other. Of course, with all this confusion, Flora of China could be incorrect as well. Apparently at least one form or variety of Euphorbia heterophylla - var cyathophora - is what is now classified as the separate species Euphorbia cyathophora.

Euphorbia cyathophora can have either the violin-shaped and ovate leaves shown on the plant here, or long, linear leaves I've seen on other photos. I originally thought this was the easy differentiator between the two species, but from what I have found so far, that was an incorrect assumption.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, FL, GA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NM, OH, OK, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI
Wild Poinsettia, Mexican Fireplant, Fire on the Mountain, Painted Euphorbia, Desert Poinsettia
SquawrootConopholis americana*
(Native)
SquawrootParisitic plant that makes its living off the roots of oak trees.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Squawroot
St. John's WortHypericum dolabriforme*
(Native)
Glade St. John's Wort; Straggling St. JohnswortSome authorities continue to include the Hypericum genus in the plant family Clusiaceae (including the USDA Plants Database,) but relatively recent molecular studies have resulted in establishment of the Hypericaceae family, for which Hypericum is the type genus, although there are at least two other genera in that new classification. It should be noted that at least one of those, the genus Triadenum, is composed of species that have been classified in the genus Hypericum at one time or another, so perhaps the new family Hypericaceae is comprised of what was the Hypericum genus, which is now further broken down into multiple genera.

Hypericum dolabriforme is found only in 5 states, unlike a similar species, Hypericum sphaerocarpum, which is found in 19 states throughout the central portion of the United States, as well as in Ontario, Canada. In addition to likely being less erect, some feature differences between H. dolabriforme and H. sphaerocarpum are noted in the photo descriptions below.

Found in:
AL, GA, IN, KY, TN
Glade St. John's Wort; Straggling St. Johnswort
St. John's WortHypericum punctatum*
(Native)
Spotted St. Johnswort, Black Dotted St. JohnswortFound throughout the eastern United States as far west as Texas and Minnesota, this plant is easy to confuse with Common St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum,) which has larger flowers, smaller leaves, and leaf dots that are more translucent than those of H. punctatum. H. punctatum also has dots covering more of the petals and sepals. The smaller stems of H. perforatum are also strongly angled and may have small wings on the angles.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Spotted St. Johnswort, Black Dotted St. Johnswort
St. Johns WortHypericum hypericoides ssp. multicaule*
(Native)
Reclining St. Andrew’s Cross, Multi-stem St. Andrew's-crossHypericum hypericoides ssp. multicaule has been classified as a separate species of St. John’s Wort - Hypericum stragulatum in the past. The other (original) subspecies, Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides, is a taller, erect plant, up to four feet tall, and has leaves which are widest in the middle, whereas those of ssp. multicaule are widest past the middle toward the end of the leaf. The subspecies name multicaule means many-branched.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Reclining St. Andrew’s Cross, Multi-stem St. Andrew's-cross
Star GrassHypoxis hirsuta*
(Native)
Yellow Star Grass, Common GoldstarYellow Star Grass - Recently moved from Liliaceae family to the Hypoxidaceae (African Potato) family. Many taxonomists don't recognize the Hypoxidaceae family.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Yellow Star Grass, Common Goldstar
Starwort Stellaria pubera*
(Native)
Star Chickweed There is at least one Stellaria species found in every state in the United States, as well as in every territory in Canada. Stellaria pubera is a plant of the eastern half of the United States, found in every state east of the Mississippi River except Maine, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. It is also found in a few states west of the Mississippi. It is Endangered in Illinois and New Jersey.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MN, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Star Chickweed
StarwortStellaria media*
(Introduced)
Common ChickweedCommon Chickweed is a non-native species which is now found in every state in the United States. It is low-growing, often found in mats of tangle plants in disturbed areas. It can be invasive. Common Chickweed
StonecropSedum ternatum
(Native)
Woodland Stonecrop, Wild Stonecrop, Woods StonecropThe Pocket at Pigeon Mountain, Walker County, GA 04/04/2009Woodland Stonecrop, Wild Stonecrop, Woods Stonecrop
StonecropSedum leibergii*
(Native)
Leiberg StonecropThe Sedum genus is in flux. USDA lists 72 taxa in the genus; many of those will be moved out of Sedum based on newer analysis of data which will include that from recent molecular studies.

Sedum leibergii is found only in four states - Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. It is found only in two counties in Montana (according to BONAP / USDA,) and is fairly rare in the 7 counties in Idaho where it’s found.

Found in:
ID, MT, OR, WA
Leiberg Stonecrop
StonecropSedum stenopetalum*
(Native)
Wormleaf Stonecrop, Narrow-leaved SedumThere are two varieties of Sedum stenopetalum - var. monathum, which has a solitary flower in the inflorescence, and the one presented here, var. stenopetalum, which will have between 9 and 25 flowers in the inflorescence. Var. monathum is found only in Washington, Oregon, and northern California, while var. stenopetalum is found in those states as well as Idaho, western Montana, and in Alberta and British Columbia in Canada.

Found in:
CA, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Wormleaf Stonecrop, Narrow-leaved Sedum
StonecropSedum pulchellum*
(Native)
Widow's Cross, Glade Stonecrop, Widowscross, Lime Stonecrop, Pink StonecropSedum pulchellum is an attractive plant of thin soil on rocky limestone outcrops and glades. It blooms in late spring, to mid-summer in the northern end of its range. It is variably reported to be an annual, biennial, or perennial plant.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IL, KS, KY, MO, MS, OH, OK, TN, TX
Widow's Cross, Glade Stonecrop, Widowscross, Lime Stonecrop, Pink Stonecrop
Stonecrop, OrpineHylotelephium telephioides*
(Native)
Allegheny Stonecrop, Allegheny Live-for-everThe approximately 30 species in Hylotelephium were until recently classified as a subgenus or section of the Sedum genus. (There may be a move to change Hylotelephium to Anacampseros since it is reported that was an older name previously used for some plants in that section of Sedum.) Most of the morphological differences between Hylotelephium and Sedum are not obvious, but the much larger leaves stood out for me. There are 3 species of Hylotelephium in North America, with the species presented here, Hylotelephium telephioides - Allegheny Stonecrop, being the only North American native. Allegheny Stonecrop usually has a pale pinkish hue, whereas the non-natives have a green hue or darker purple or purple-red color.

Allegheny Stonecrop is “essentially a Central and Southern Appalachian endemic,” according to Weakley. While there are some populations outside the Appalachian Mountain region - in Indiana, Illinois, western Kentucky, and possibly Louisiana - the plant will mostly be found in the Appalachians from Pennsylvania south to North Carolina; only at higher elevations in the southern part of its range. I observed it on rock outcroppings along the northern end of the Blue Ridge Parkway, and along the Skyline Drive in Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. Apparently reports of its presence in Georgia and New York are disputed.

Found in:
CT, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, VA, WV
Allegheny Stonecrop, Allegheny Live-for-ever
StoneseedLithospermum tuberosum*
(Native)
Southern Stoneseed, Tuberous Stoneseed, Tuberous GromwellA hairy plant growing from 1 to 2 feet tall in forests with underlying limestone rocks in the southeastern United States. While the genus name refers to the very hard seed, the species epithet refers to the tuber-like root. I photographed this plant after author Jay Clark pointed it out to me as we crossed a limestone outcropping on a deer trail we were walking in one of the few places in Georgia where it can be found.

Found in:
AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Southern Stoneseed, Tuberous Stoneseed, Tuberous Gromwell
StoneseedLithospermum ruderale*
(Native)
Western Stoneseed, Columbia Puccoon, Yellow PuccoonI did not do a lot of species comparison on this, because this is the only Lithospermum species listed by USDA as being in Idaho, where I photographed this one. It is generally a fairly upright, hairy, leafy plant, growing up to about 2 feet tall, found in more or less open areas at altitudes of about 3500 to 5500 feet.

The genus name come from the very hard, small nutlets. The Stoneseed common name also references those hard nutlets (from Latin litho = stone, and spermum = seed.) The Puccoon common name comes from the Native American (one of the Algonquian languages) word for dye, since a red dye was made from the roots of these plants. Sanguinaria canadensis is another unrelated species to which the Puccoon name is applied; its roots were also used to produce a red dye. There is a report that Lithospermum ruderale produces a yellowish dye, and others that it, along with the other Stoneseed species, produces red dye; I don't know which is correct, or if processing differences might produce different colored dyes. There is some evidence to suggest the dyes made from an eastern Lithospermum species (L. canescens) was the origin of the term Redskin for Native Americans.

Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Western Stoneseed, Columbia Puccoon, Yellow Puccoon
StoneseedLithospermum canescens*
(Native)
Hoary Puccoon, Orange Puccoon, Indian PaintAbout 18 (to 22 if you include Onosmodium - Marbleseed - in Lithospermum, as most recent classification is doing) of the 60 or so Lithospermum species are found in North America, with one in each of the lower 48 states, and most of Canada. All but one of these species are native (L. officinale, the introduced species, is found in the north east and north central states and eastern Canada.)

Lithospermum canescens is one of the more widespread species, found in most states from the plains eastward, although more concentrated in the central part of the country. Other widespread species with overlapping ranges are a pair of eastern species, L. caroliniense (Carolina Puccoon) and L. latifolium (American Stoneseed), and two more western species, L. incisum (Narrowleaf Stoneseed.) and L. ruderale (Western Stoneseed.)

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, OH, OK, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Hoary Puccoon, Orange Puccoon, Indian Paint
StorksbillErodium cicutarium*
(Introduced)
Crane’s Bill Geranium, Redstem Stork's Bill, Storksbill, Redstem Filaree, Heron's BillErodium cicutarium is a plant of Eurasian origin but has now spread throughout the world. According to the USDA Plants Database (map shown to the right) the only state where it is not found is Florida; only recently being officially recognized as present in Mississippi. While more common at lower elevations, it can be found in the montane zone which generally extends up to around 7500'. This plant is classified as a noxious weed in Colorado.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Crane’s Bill Geranium, Redstem Stork's Bill, Storksbill, Redstem Filaree, Heron's Bill
StrawberryFragaria virginiana
(Native)
Virginia Strawberry, Wild StrawberryThis most widely-distributed wild strawberry, the Virginia Strawberry is found in every state in the United States except Hawaii. This United States native plant was one of the two species used to create the hybrid garden strawberry.Virginia Strawberry, Wild Strawberry
SumacRhus copallinum*
(Native)
Winged Sumac, Shining Sumac, Flameleaf Sumac, Dwarf Sumac, Eastern Winged SumacThere are about 35 species of Rhus (Sumac) in the world, with about 15 found in North America. Two of them, Rhus aromatica and Rhus glabra, are found in each of the 48 lower states. Besides these two, the species presented here, Rhus copallinum is the most widely distributed, found in the entire eastern half of the United States, from Texas to Maine, as well as in Ontario, Canada.

There seems to be some disagreement on the division of Rhus, as it has undergone a few classification changes recently. All seem to agree with the move of Poison Oak and the Poison Ivy from Rhus into Toxicodendron. While there seems to be general acceptance that Poison Sumac (highly poisonous, but fortunately not common) should now be accepted as Toxicodendron vernix rather than Rhus vernix, many publications still list it in Rhus, and on the surface it sure looks more like Sumac than Poison Ivy to me (deeper dive may show a different story.) In the case of Winged Sumac, many authorities and publications list it as R. copallina rather than R. copallinum. Additionally, respected authorities seem to disagree on the varieties of that species. For example, Alan S. Weakley, in the November 2012 version of Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States recognizes var. latifolia, while those responsible for the Integrated Taxonomic Information System do not accept that name. Based purely on the description - with no field experience - I tend to agree with Mr. Weakley.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Winged Sumac, Shining Sumac, Flameleaf Sumac, Dwarf Sumac, Eastern Winged Sumac
SunflowerHelianthus angustifolius*
(Native)
Swamp Sunflower, Narrow-leaf Sunfloweraka Narrow-leaved Sunflower. Relatively easy sunflower to identify due to the narrow leaves, which are no longer than normal for a sunflower, but much narrower. The stem of Helianthus angustifolius has coarse hairs, especially on the lower part of the plant. The leaves also have hairs on the edge near the stem. Narrow-leaf sunflower has yellow ray flowers with darker disk flowers than many other sunflowers.Swamp Sunflower, Narrow-leaf Sunflower
SunflowerHelianthus atrorubens*
(Native)
Purpledisk sunflower, Appalachian sunflowerMultiple flower heads terminating a stem which is quite hairy in the lower half; glabrous to pubescent nearing the inflorescence. The leaves are opposite with leaf pairs in whorled pattern around the stem. The leaves are greatly reduced as they near the top. Several flowers each on an individual 3” pedicels. Ovate, veined leaves are hairy and rough on top; hairy on bottom. A similar species is H. silphioides; the reason I decided this species is H. atrorubens is that the USDA doesn't list H. silphioides as being found in Georgia.Purpledisk sunflower, Appalachian sunflower
Sunflowerc*
(Native)
Small Woodland Sunflower, Small-headed SunflowerThis is one of just a few Helianthus species which normally has fewer than 10 ray florets (petals.) Both the rays and disk are yellow. This plant is native to the eastern part of the United States, mostly south and central. The stem is smooth, sometimes glaucous, and the opposing lanceolate leaves are quite rough on the upper surface.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Small Woodland Sunflower, Small-headed Sunflower
SunflowerHelianthus decapetalus*
(Native)
Thinleaf Sunflower, Ten-petal Sunflower, Forest Sunflower, Pale Sunflower Helianthus decapetalus is an occasionally branching plant from 2 to 5 feet tall, with multiple flower heads on long stalks. It is a relatively leafy sunflower, with opposite leaves on the lower part of the plant and alternate leaves on the upper part of the plant. This is one of the sunflowers that may have green or reddish stems. The stems are smooth, occasionally glaucous, in the lower part, and may have short hairs in the upper area, usually so in the inflorescence. It blooms in late summer and well into fall.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Thinleaf Sunflower, Ten-petal Sunflower, Forest Sunflower, Pale Sunflower
SunflowerHelianthus tuberosus*
(Native)
Jerusalem Artichoke, Jerusalem Sunflower, Sunchoke, GirasoleAs with many members of Helianthus, Jerusalem Artichoke can be quite variable. One of the key features of this plant, the edible tubers, are underground and produced late in the season, so they aren't really a good identification feature (unless you want folks walking around pulling up the plants – I don't.)

This beautiful, showy sunflower is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities. It is found in all but 5 states, and also in much of Canada.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Jerusalem Artichoke, Jerusalem Sunflower, Sunchoke, Girasole
SunflowerHelianthus debilis*
(Native)
Dune Sunflower, Beach Sunflower, Cucumberleaf Sunflower, East Coast Dune Sunflower, Branching SunflowerThe USDA Common name is Cucumberleaf Sunflower, but Beach Sunflower and Dune Sunflower seem to be the most commonly used common names. Until 1969, Helianthus debilis was considered to have 8 subspecies. In 1969, however, 3 of those subspecies found only in Texas were moved to the separate species Helianthus praecox (Texas Sunflower), leaving 5 subspecies in Helianthus debilis. Of these, Helianthus debilis ssp. silvestris is also found only in Texas. Subspecies debilis and vestitus are found only in Florida, and subspecies tardiflorus is found in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Subspecies cucumerifolius is the most widespread subspecies, found 17 mostly coastal states.

Found in:
AL, CT, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NH, PA, RI, SC, TX, VA, VT, WV
Dune Sunflower, Beach Sunflower, Cucumberleaf Sunflower, East Coast Dune Sunflower, Branching Sunflower
SweetcloverMelilotus officinalis*
(Introduced)
Yellow Sweetclover, Yellow Melilot, Common Melilot, Field Melilot, Cornilla Real, White SweetcloverAn invasive species introduced from Eurasia which is now found in every state in the United States and most of Canada, and even in Greenland. The almost identical White Sweetclover is classified as the separate species Melilotus alba by some authorities, while others now consider it a white form of Melilotus officinalis, although some research indicates that they are incompatible, thus should be maintained as separate species. Melilotus indicus is another introduced yellow Sweetclover which is similar. Its flowers may be somewhat smaller, and it has a shorter pedicel - < 1mm. While it is still widely distributed in the United States, M. indicus is found only in 31 states, rather than in all 50 like M. officinalis.

It has a bitter taste but a sweet odor which is enhanced by drying.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Yellow Sweetclover, Yellow Melilot, Common Melilot, Field Melilot, Cornilla Real, White Sweetclover
SweetcloverMelilotus albus*
(Introduced)
White Sweetclover, White Melilot, Honey-Clover, Bokhara CloverThis plant is a native of Eurasia, from the Mediterranean to Tibet. It appears nearly identical to Melilotus officinalis except for blossom color. Some authorities consider them to be separate species rather than color forms of the same species because they are reported to be genetically incompatible. USDA Plants Database has synonymized M. albus with M. officinalis, but ITIS, Weakley, the USDA Forestry Service (FEIS), and others continue to treat them separately. In addition to the color difference, the blossom of M. albus is somewhat smaller. Because USDA Plants database has them synonymized, the map shown here is that for M. officinalis, and my guess is that this is a combined map of the two species. I expect that the distribution of these two species is similar - one or the other (or both) is found in every state in the United States, and almost all of Canada.

Melilotus was reported in the United States as early as 1664, and by 1817 it had spread as far west as Utah and Nevada. It was reported in Alaska in 1916, and in Hawaii in 1920. It’s spread was largely because it was promoted for soil reclamation, both for improving soil quality from worn-out tobacco fields and for stabilizing eroding hillsides. It was also planted for honey production and as a livestock and wildlife forage. It was used for soil reclamation by federal agencies as recently as 1998. Having escaped and naturalized, it grows in a variety of habitats, and is reportedly more invasive in northern temperate climates than in southern.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
White Sweetclover, White Melilot, Honey-Clover, Bokhara Clover
SweetrootOsmorhiza longistylis
(Native)
Longstyle Sweetroot, Sweet Anise, AniserootThe leaves and stem when crushed will have a slight licorice smell; the root is anise-scented. This identification vs the very similar O. claytonii (Sweet Cicely) is based on the style of the flower, which is significantly longer than the 5 white petals. In O. claytonii, according to Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians the style is shorter than the petals.Longstyle Sweetroot, Sweet Anise, Aniseroot
SweetshrubCalycanthus floridus
(Native)
Eastern Sweetshrub, Sweet Shrub, Carolina Allspice, Strawberry Shrub, Sweet Bubby BushEastern Sweetshrub is an attractive, woody shrub up to 10 feet tall. During late spring the plant will have many flowers each with many maroon to reddish brown sepals and petals. The flowers are pleasantly aromatic, especially when the petals are crushed. Calycanthus floridus is Endangered in Florida.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Eastern Sweetshrub, Sweet Shrub, Carolina Allspice, Strawberry Shrub, Sweet Bubby Bush
SweetspireItea virginica*
(Native)
Virginia Sweetspire, Virginia Willow, Tassel-whiteThis plant grows on streambanks and other moist areas. It is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental not only for its blossoms, but also for the rich, long-lasting fall color of its foliage. lightly fragrant. To about 8 feet tall.Virginia Sweetspire, Virginia Willow, Tassel-white
TasselflowerEmilia fosbergii*
(Introduced)
Florida Tasselflower, Flora's Paintbrush, Florida Tassel FlowerThere are three species of Tasselflower (Emilia) in the United States, none of which have very wide distribution. Lilac Tasseflower (Emilia sonchifolia) is the only native species of these three which are native (although Flora of North America disagrees with the native status of this species.) All three species are found in Florida, and Florida Tasselflower, the one presented here, is also found in Louisiana, Texas, California, and Hawaii.

E. sonchifolia is less frequent than Florida Tasselflower, and differs primarily in leaf attributes, although it usually has paler flowers. The third species, Emilia coccinea is an ornamental that may occasionally escape but, accoring to the Flora of North America, does not persist in the wild. There is very little difference between E. coccinea and E. fosbergii (involucres are longer in fosbergii; the flower heads may be larger) but if you find it in the wild it is most likely E. fosbergii, Florida Tasselflower. Tasselflowers do not have ray florets.

Found in:
CA, FL, HI, LA, TX
Florida Tasselflower, Flora's Paintbrush, Florida Tassel Flower
TeaselDipsacus sativus*
(Introduced)
Teasel, Indian Teasel, Fuller’s TeaselNote that the imbedded text in the photos say Teasel and Dipsacus sp. rather than being more specific - that’s due to some doubts about Dipsacus sativus (Indian Teasel) being the correct identification, so I can change easily if someone convinces me that these are one of the other two Dipsacus found in North America, with all three species being reported in Virginia, where these photos were taken. Dipsacus sativus has the narrowest distribution of these three species (there are about 15 species worldwide). D. laciniatus (Cutleaf Teasel) is found in 20 states, and D. fullonum (Common Teasel) has the widest distribution, being found in 41 states.

Dipsacus sativus and Dipsacus fullonum are both also known as Fullers Teasel because they were used in the fulling process - making woolen cloth softer and thicker by various processes including pulling barbed tools (the dried heads of Teasel among them) across the surface of the cloth. Dipsacus sativus was more likely the Teasel preferred by fullers due to the recurved receptacle spines.

Found in:
CA, NY, OH, OR, PA, VA
Teasel, Indian Teasel, Fuller’s Teasel
ThistleCirsium vulgare
(Introduced)
Bull Thistle, Spear ThistleThis is an introduced species which has spread to every state in the United States. It is listed as a noxious weed (and thus it is prohibited to propagate) in at least 10 states.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Bull Thistle, Spear Thistle
ThistleCirsium hookerianum*
(Native)
Hooker’s Thistle, White ThistleThis plant is thought to be monocarpic - it flowers and forms seeds only once, and then dies (although there is some question about that.) However, it is also considered perennial, because it may live for several years before flowering.

Similar species Cirsium longistylum is found only in Montana, and has long, fringed involucre bracts.

All Cirsium species are listed as noxious weeds in Arkansas and Iowa, although this particular species is not known outside of a few states in the U.S. northwest, and in Alberta and British Columbia in Canada.

Found in:
ID, MT, WA, WY
Hooker’s Thistle, White Thistle
ThistleCirsium horridulum*
(Native)
Yellow Thistle, Common Yellow Thistle, Spiny Thistle, Bigspine Thistle, Southern Yellow Thistle, Horrible ThistleMost of the plants we normally call thistles are within four genera in Asteraceae, Carduus, Cynara, Cirsium, and Onopordum. The vast majority of the species of thistle found in North America - and all the native ones - are in the Cirsium genus. With over 60 species in the genus in North America there is at least one in every state, and the genus is represented throughout most of Canada as well. Cirsium horridulum, Yellow Thistle, is an eastern species, being found in all of the eastern coastal states from Maine to Texas as well as in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. It grows in open areas such as roadsides, meadows, and pastures. While Cirsium horridulum, along with all species of Cirsium, are considered noxious weeds in Arkansa, and many (most?) people look on it as such, it receives protection as an Endangered or Threatened species in Connecticut, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. There are three varieties of the species in the United States - vars. horridulum, vittatum, and megacanthum. Var. horridulum is the only one with yellow flowers, but it can also have red to purple flowers. The other two varieties have a narrower distribution in the U.S., and are less hairy than var. horridulum.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, ME, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA
Yellow Thistle, Common Yellow Thistle, Spiny Thistle, Bigspine Thistle, Southern Yellow Thistle, Horrible Thistle
ThoroughwortEupatorium serotinum*
(Native)
Late-Flowering Thoroughwort, Late-Flowering Bonesethere are 24 Eupatorium species in North America; over 40 worldwide, with Thoroughworts being found in Europe and Asia. It used to be a larger genus, with Eutrochium (Joe Pye Weed) being included in Eupatorium until fairly recently. Eupatorium serotinum is one of the most widely distributed species in the genus, surpassed only by Eupatorium altissumum (Tall Thoroughwort) and Eupatorium perfoliatum (Common Boneset.) One or more of these species frequently line the backroads of the eastern half of the United States with their white blossoms in late summer and early fall.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Late-Flowering Thoroughwort, Late-Flowering Boneset
TickseedCoreopsis lanceolata*
(Native)
Lanceleaf CoreopsisLanceleaf Coreopsis is a late spring / early summer wildflower that is found in all but eight states in the United States. While it is native to the continental states, it is an introduced species in Hawaii. The plant grows to approximately 3 feet tall.

Found in:
AL, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Lanceleaf Coreopsis
TickseedCoreopsis tripteris*
(Native)
Tall Coreopsis, Tall TickseedCoreopsis is a genus of 33 species native to the United States, with a species found in every state except Alaska, Nevada, and Utah. Coreopsis triperis is found in 27 states. It is Endangered in Maryland.

While most Coreopsis species are 3 feet tall or shorter, this plant can be 8 or more feet tall. The Tickseed part of the name is because the seed is hard, dark, and flat, looking like the namesake arachnid.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Tall Coreopsis, Tall Tickseed
TickseedCoreopsis major*
(Native)
Greater Tickseed, Whorled Leaf Coreopsis, Forest TickseedCoreopsis major grows from 2 to 4 feet tall on roadsides and open forests. The blossom has both yellow ray and disk flowers and can be up to 2.5 inches wide.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, IN, KY, LA, MA, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Greater Tickseed, Whorled Leaf Coreopsis, Forest Tickseed
TickseedCoreopsis pubescens*
(Native)
Hairy Coreopsis, Hairy Tickseed, Star TickseedThe Coreopsis genus has 35 - 50 species, almost all of them in the Americas, with 28 listed in Flora of North America. Coreopsis pubescens is primarily a species of the southeastern United States, with the range extending as far north as Illinois and as far west as Texas. It is of Special Concern in Kentucky.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Hairy Coreopsis, Hairy Tickseed, Star Tickseed
TicktrefoilDesmodium ochroleucum*
(Native)
Cream-flowered Tick Trefoil, Cream Ticktrefoil, Tick Clover, Creamflowered Tick-TrefoilAccording to the December 2006 edition of “Castanea”, the journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society, there are 13 known populations of this species in 6 states – Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, and Tennessee. There are 5 other states within its historical range, but the populations have apparently been lost, presumably extirpated, in these states: New Jersey, Delaware, Virgina, North Carolina, and Missouri.

According to Linda G. Chafin's Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Georgia there are fewer than 25 sites. Since 13 is less than 25 both of these publications are likely correct, with the difference likely being how recently the plant has been recorded at the various sites. For example, in Georgia there are 2 sites listed for this plant, one of them the Walker County location where these photographs were made. The other site is in Lee County, but the plant has not been seen there since the 1940s.

With those few sites where the plant is known, it is not a wonder that it is Endangered in Florida, Maryland, Tennessee, Threatened in Georgia.

I owe much appreciation to Jay Clark who pointed out these plants and their identity while we were looking for Shadow Witch Orchids.

Found in:
AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, TN, VA
Cream-flowered Tick Trefoil, Cream Ticktrefoil, Tick Clover, Creamflowered Tick-Trefoil
TicktrefoilDesmodium nudiflorum*
(Native)
Nakedflower Ticktrefoil, Naked-Flowered Tick Trefoil, Naked-stemmed Tick CloverThe USDA Plants Database lists 75 US species in the Desmodium (Ticktrefoil) genus, although specific occurrence information seems to be unavailable for many of the species, so the presence of all of them is doubtful. At least one species is found in 41 states, with the far west missing out. Most of us are probably more familiar with the little sticky seeds that fasten themselves to our clothing than with the flowers, but these members of the Pea family do have attractive blossoms. Nakedflower Ticktrefoil is found in 34 states, and in much of eastern Canada.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Nakedflower Ticktrefoil, Naked-Flowered Tick Trefoil, Naked-stemmed Tick Clover
TicktrefoilDesmodium rotundifolium*
(Native)
Round-Leaved Tick Trefoil, Round-Leaved Trailing Tick-Trefoil, Prostrate TicktrefoilDesmodium is a large genus of about 700 species worldwide, with perhaps 75 species in the United States. Desmodium rotundifolium is found in about half of the United States; it is Threatened in New Hampshire and Vermont. Desmodiums are known as Tick Clover, Tick Trefoils (for their three leaflet leaves) and Beggars Lice, due to their sticky seeds which attach themselves to clothing, socks, and animal fur.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Round-Leaved Tick Trefoil, Round-Leaved Trailing Tick-Trefoil, Prostrate Ticktrefoil
ToadflaxLinaria dalmatica*
(Introduced)
Dalmation Toadflax, Broadleaf ToadflaxDalmation Toadflax is a plant that was introduced from Europe in the 19th century as an ornamental, and is now classified as an invasive noxious weed in 12 states. It is now found throughout the lower 48 United States except in the southeast.

This is another of many plants undergoing relatively recent changes in classification, with the Linaria genus recently being placed in Plantaginaceae, the Plantain family, having been moved out of Scrophulariaceae – the Figwort family.

Similar species - Butter-and-Egg Plant - Linaria vulgaris, another introduced plant which has officially become a noxious weed. Linaria vulgaris is found throughout the United States, including the southeast. The easiest differentiator between L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica is that L. dalmatica has clasping leaves.

Found in:
AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY
Dalmation Toadflax, Broadleaf Toadflax
Touch-me-not Impatiens capensis*
(Native)
Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Spotted jewelweedReported to be an antidote for poison ivy allergins, when crushed and the liquid rubbed on the area which was in contact with the poison ivy.

Found in:
AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV
Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Spotted jewelweed
Touch-me-notImpatiens pallida*
(Native)
Pale Touch-me-not, Pale SnapweedOf the 10 Impatiens species found wild in the United States, 5 are native. This species, I. pallida is one of those natives, and it is found in 33 of our states. It is protected as a plant of Special Concern in Maine.

Pale Touch-me-not grows to 5 feet tall in moist areas, usually in dense colonies.
Pale Touch-me-not, Pale Snapweed
Trailing ArbutusEpigaea repens*
(Native)
Trailing Arbutus, Ground Laurel, Mayflower, Plymouth MayflowerTrailing Arbutus is a shrub in the Heath family. The stems grow along or near the ground, as indicated by the genus name: Epi is from the Greek for upon, and gaia is Greek for earth.

There are three species in the Epigaea genus, one in eastern Asia (E. asiatica), one in southwestern Asia (E. gaultherioides), and this one, Epigaea repens, which is native to the eastern United States and Canada. It is Endangered in Florida, where it is found in the panhandle. It is also protected in New York, and may be extirpated in Illinois. It is the state flower of Massachusetts, and is legally protected there as well.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Trailing Arbutus, Ground Laurel, Mayflower, Plymouth Mayflower
TridaxTridax procumbens*
(Introduced)
Coatbuttons, Tridax Daisy, Tridax, Cadillo ChisacaThis tropical plant is an invasive weed, listed federally and by 9 states. While the USDA lists it as found in the United States only in Florida and Hawaii (as well as in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands), 7 other states have it listed as an invasive or noxious weed, so presumably it is found in those states as well. Tridax procumbens is the only Tridax species found in the United States.

Found in:
AL, CA, FL, HI, MA, MN, NC, OR, SC, TX, VT
Coatbuttons, Tridax Daisy, Tridax, Cadillo Chisaca
TrilliumTrillium catesbaei*
(Native)
Catesby's Trillium, Bashful Wakerobin, Rose TrilliumThe yellow anthers make a quick differentiation with the nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum), which have pink anthers.

Found in:
AL, GA, NC, SC, TN
Catesby's Trillium, Bashful Wakerobin, Rose Trillium
TrilliumTrillium simile*
(Native)
Sweet White Trillium, Jeweled Wakerobin, Confusing TrilliumTrillium simile is one of our rarer trilliums, being found only in certain mountain areas of Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. There is some doubt as to its presence in South Carolina.

Some authorities have classified it as Trillium vaseyi Harbison var. simile.

There are three similar Trillium species with the dark, nearly black ovaries - Trillium simile, Trillium erectum, and Trillium sulcatum. To further confuse, all may have red (maroon) or white petals (T. erectum may have yellowish or greenish petals as well.) White petals are the norm for T. simile, are uncommon but not real rare in T. erectum, and may occasionally occur in T. sulcatum. T. sulcatum flowers are smaller than the others and the petals are only slightly longer than the sepals. It is more difficult to tell the difference between T. simile and T. erectum. The sepals and petals of T. erectum will usually be “flatter” - more closely in the same plane - than T. simile. The petals of T. simile are wider relative to the sepals, usually twice as wide or more, and are more likely to be recurved near the tip than those of T. erectum. With those difficult differentiators, perhaps the easiest way to tell the difference is to remember these common names and use them in reference to the fragrance - T. simile is “Sweet White Trillium”, with a sweet fragrance similar to green apples, and T. erectum is “Stinking Benjamin”, with an unpleasant musty odor more like that of a wet dog.

Found in:
GA, NC, SC, TN

NOTE: In Feb, 2014 I received a comment from Chris Stoehler, indicating that some of the photos on this page are T. erectum var. album. Some research implies that Chris could be considered an authority on several Trillium species, including those under consideration here, so I will be reviewing my identification of these as T. simile. It may require an April visit back to the site where these were taken to check on the fragrance of the blossoms.
Sweet White Trillium, Jeweled Wakerobin, Confusing Trillium
TrilliumTrillium sessile
(Native)
Toadshade Trilliumaka Little Sweet Betsy. One of the sessile trilliums, which have the "toadshade" designation. T. sessile is shorter, has smaller leaves, and a smaller blossom than T. cuneatum, which is easily and frequently confused with T. sessile. Toadshade Trillium
TrilliumTrillium decumbens*
(Native)
Trailing TrilliumTrailing trillium is characterized by carrying its three leaves close to the ground. It has a lovely deep red blossom, starting to bloom in mid-March.

Found in:
AL, GA, TN
Trailing Trillium
TrilliumTrillium flexipes*
(Native)
White Trillium, Nodding Wakerobin, Bent White Trillium, Bent Trillium, Drooping Trillium, Declined TrilliumOne of a number of white trilliums which carry their flowers on a pedicel. Those with pedicels are frequently called wakerobins, those without toadshades, although as is frequently the case with common names, there is inconsistency in those monikers.
Synonyms:
Trillium declinatum
Trillium erectum
Trillium gleasonii

Endangered in Maryland and New York.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, SD, TN, VA, WI, WV
White Trillium, Nodding Wakerobin, Bent White Trillium, Bent Trillium, Drooping Trillium, Declined Trillium
TrilliumTrillium cuneatum*
(Native)
Little Sweet Betsy, Toadshade TrilliumThe sessile, stalked trilliums are known as Toadshades.Little Sweet Betsy, Toadshade Trillium
TrilliumTrillium vaseyi*
(Native)
Vasey's Trillium, Sweet WakerobinVaseys Trillium, as indicated by the Sweet Wakerobin name by which it is also known, is one of the trilliums whose flower is on a pedicel. The blossom nods below the leaves.Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Wakerobin
TrilliumTrillium grandiflorum*
(Native)
Large-Flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White TrilliumTrillium grandiflorum is one of the showiest and most common of our eastern Trilliums. It grows to about 2 feet tall, and can be found in large colonies.

Endangered in Maine; Exploitably Vulnerable in New York.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Large-Flowered Trillium, Great White Trillium, White Trillium
TrilliumTrillium lancifolium*
(Native)
Lanceleaf Trillium, Lanceleaf WakerobinLanceleaf Trillium is a small trillium with a sessile maroon blossom. It is found only in six southeastern state – TN, MS, AL, GA, SC, and FL, and is endangered in Florida and Tennessee.

Lanceleaf Trillium is similar and closely related to Prairie Trillium (Trillium recurvatum.) Prairie Trillium has more strongly recurved sepals, is usually larger than T. Lancifolium, has broader leaves, and (key identifier) the leaves are on short petioles, whereas T. Lancifolium leaves narrow significantly at their base, but they are sessile. T. recurvatum also has a larger, more northern and western range.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, MS, SC, TN
Lanceleaf Trillium,  Lanceleaf Wakerobin
TrilliumTrillium petiolatum*
(Native)
Idaho Trillium, Long-petioled Trillium, Purple Trillium, Round Leaf Trillium, Purple WakerobinAn unusual trillium with plantain-like leaves found primarily in the region where the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington come together. It may be 8 to 10 inches tall.

Found in:
ID, OR, WA
Idaho Trillium, Long-petioled Trillium, Purple Trillium, Round Leaf Trillium, Purple Wakerobin
TrilliumTrillium luteum*
(Native)
Yellow Trillium, Yellow WakerobinPrimarily a species of south of the Mason Dixon Line, Trillium luteum is also found in Michigan and Ontario, Canada.

Recent classifications have moved the Trilliums, along with 9 other Liliaceae genera, into the family Melanthiaceae. Among the criteria for that change is the fact that Lilies have 6 tepals - sepals and petals which are almost identical - but Trilliums sepals are distinctly different from their petals. Unlike the Lilies, Trillium sepals persist longer than their petals. I have so far continued to leave Trillium in Liliaceae on USWildflowers.com.

Found in:
AL, DC, GA, KY, MD, MI, NC, SC, TN, VA
Yellow Trillium, Yellow Wakerobin
TrilliumTrillium ovatum*
(Native)
Western Trillium, Western White Trillium, Pacific Trillium, Oettinger’s TrilliumTrilliums are much more common in the east than they are in the west. In Idaho, where these photos were taken, there are only two Trillium species - the one presented here, Trillium ovatum, and the Idaho Trillium, Trillium petiolatum. There are two varieties of Trillium ovatum (some authorities considered these to be subspecies); var. ovatum (Pacific Trillium) and var oettingeri (Oettinger’s Trillium.) Var oettingeri blooms later, from spring into summer, and is known only in a small area in northern California. Var ovatum may start blooming in late winter and on into spring. The bracts (what we normally consider the leaves) of var. oettingeri are on short petioles; those of var. ovatum are sessile.

Flora of North America states that T. ovatum var ovatum blooms from late February through late April, but these photographs were taken at relatively high elevations (5,000’) in late May, and I have photographed another plant in the Wallowa National Forest as it was ending its bloom in early June.

Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Western Trillium, Western White Trillium, Pacific Trillium, Oettinger’s Trillium
TrilliumTrillium maculatum*
(Native)
Spotted Wakerobin, Spotted TrilliumThere are over 40 species in the Trillium genus worldwide; Flora of North America lists 38 species being found on this continent. Trillium was placed in the Liliaceae family for most of its lifetime of scientific classification. Most authorities have recently removed it from Liliaceae and placed it in Melanthiaceae because unlike other Liliaceae, the petals and sepals of Trillium are distinctly different - in most other Liliaceae species very similar. (Note that this tepal issue is at play in other Liliaceae species such as Calochortus, and it is almost universally accepted that Liliaceae will continue to be dismembered.) Even more recent phylogenetic analysis (Schilling, Floden, and Farmer, 2013) implies that there are sufficient differences from other Melanthiaceae to warrant inclusion in a separate family, and a number of respected authorities now place Trillium in Trilliaceae.

Trillium maculatum is one of the sessile-flowered Trilliums (subgenus Phyllantherum.) It can be difficult to tell the difference between some of the species in that subgenus (I certainly find it so!) so it is most helpful to have someone with expertise do the identification for you. T. maculatum and T. cuneatum - closely related, along with T. luteum, based on recent phylogenetic analysis (referenced above) - look nearly identical to me. Fortunately, while their ranges overlap somewhat, T. cuneatum is a more northern species; the range of T. maculatum is in the southern half of the states in which it is found. I won on both counts here; these were located in Georgia near the Florida border, and the folks at Wolf Creek Trout Lily Preserve had identified them for me.

Trillium maculatum - Spotted Wakerobin - is a plant of rich forests on the bluffs, floodplains, and banks of streams in the deep south. It is an early-flowering species, blooming as early as the first part of February.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, SC
Spotted Wakerobin, Spotted Trillium
TrilliumTrillium sulcatum*
(Native)
Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale Trillium, Furrowed Wakerobini>Trillium was formerly classified in Liliaceae, but most authorities have placed it in Melanthiaceae, because unlike other Liliaceae, the petals and sepals of Trillium are distinctly different. A number of respected authorities now place Trillium in Trilliaceae.

Trillium sulcatum is one of the pedicellate Trilliums, frequently referred to as Wakerobins. It is found primarily on the Cumberland Plateau but also some other mountainous areas of seven southeastern states. It was originally thought to be included with Trillium erectum, but “Barksdale” (I believe this is botanist Dr. Alma Whiffen Barksdale) determined that it was at least a separate variety of Trillium. Building on that work, Georgia botanist T. S. Patrick, while a student at the University of Tennessee, formally described Trillium sulcatum as a separate species.

Found in:
AL, GA, KY, NC, TN, VA, WV
Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale Trillium, Furrowed Wakerobin
Triplet-LilyTriteleia grandiflora*
(Native)
Large-flowered Triplet-lily, Douglas’ Brodiaea, Wild Hyacinth Triteleia grandiflora is found in eight of our western states (CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY.) It will be about 1 to 2 feet tall or a bit taller, growing in dry meadows, sagebrush, and pine forests. To us easterners, it has the appearance of an onion species with large flowers, but there was no detectable aroma. There are blue and white varieties.

Synonyms:
  • Brodiaea douglasii
  • Brodiaea howellii
  • Triteleia bicolor
  • Triteleia howellii


Found in:
CA, CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY
Large-flowered Triplet-lily, Douglas’ Brodiaea, Wild Hyacinth
Trumpet CreeperCampsis radicans
(Native)
Trumpet CreeperWalker County, Ga 06/26/2004Trumpet Creeper
Trumpet FlowerCollomia grandiflora*
(Native)
Large Flowered Collomia, Grand Collomia, Mountain CollomiaThere are 13 species of Collomia in the United States, with all but 1 of them (Collomia linearis) being found exclusively in the western half of the United States. C. linearis is found in the west as well as the rest of the northern United States and most of Canada. The species presented here, C. grandiflora, found in 10 western states as well as in British Columbia (C. heterophylla and C. linearis are also found in British Columbia.)

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Large Flowered Collomia, Grand Collomia, Mountain Collomia
Trumpet FlowerCollomia linearis*
(Native)
Narrowleaf Collomia, Tiny Trumpet, Narrow-leaf Mountain TrumpetThere are 13 species of Collomia in the United States, with all but Collomia linearis, the species presented here, being found exclusively in the western half of the United States. C. linearis is found in the west as well as the rest of the northern United States and most of Canada. While it is native in Canada and the 32 of the lower 48 states where it is found, it is an introduced species in Hawaii and Alaska.

Found in:
AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY
Narrowleaf Collomia, Tiny Trumpet, Narrow-leaf Mountain Trumpet
TuliptreeLiriodendron tulipifera*
(Native)
Tulip Poplar, Yellow Poplar, Tuliptree, Tulip MagnoliaTulip Poplar is not a poplar, which includes the cottonwoods, true poplars, and willows, but rather a member of the magnolia family. The “tulip' name comes not only from the blossom, but also from the leaves, both of which are tulip-shaped. The leaves are an attractive yellow in the fall. It is a tall, fast-growing tree, reaching heights of 80 – 120 feet. It grows thoughout most of the eastern and southeastern United States except for Maine and New Hampshire.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Tulip Poplar, Yellow Poplar, Tuliptree, Tulip Magnolia
TurtleheadChelone lyonii*
(Native)
Red Turtlehead, Pink Turtlehead, Lyon's Turtlehead, Appalachian TurtleheadChelone was a woman of Greek Mythology who the gods changed into a turtle - perhaps with a head shaped similarly to the flowers on these plants. There are only four species in Chelone, all of them eastern North American natives. Two of them, C. glabra and C. obliqua, have fairly widespread native distribution, while C. cuthbertii and the species presented here, C. lyonii, have much more limited native distribution. The common names Red Turtlehead and Pink Turtlehead are applied to both C. lyonii and C. obliqua, and I would guess C. cuthbertii as well.

Chelone lyonii is probably native only to the higher Appalachian elevations of northeastern Alabama, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina, and northwestern South Carolina. There are also reports of a likely native population on Lookout Mountain in northwestern Georgia. Other populations are likely naturalized from garden escapees.

Found in:
AL, CT, GA, MA, ME, MS, NC, NY, SC, TN, WV (Native in TN, AL, GA, NC, SC; naturalized in other states.)
Red Turtlehead, Pink Turtlehead, Lyon's Turtlehead, Appalachian Turtlehead
TwaybladeListera australis*
(Native)
Southern TwaybladeListera australis is now a synonym of Neottia bifolia. Based on recent molecular studies, scientists have determined that Listera and Neottia have common ancestors, and therefore should be in the same genus. This is in spite of Neottia being without chlorophyll, relying on fungi for food production, while Listera plants are chlorophyllic, thus producing their nutrition via photosynthesis. Since Neottia is an older name, it won out over Listera. Maybe I’m just recalcitrant, but I think chlorophyllic/non-chlorophyllic is enough for separation of the species into different genera, so I’m sticking with Listera australis until the rest of the world publications are updated.

Southern Twayblade is a diminutive plant of damp forest areas and open bogs from Texas and Florida north to Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont. It is listed as Endangered or Threatened in Florida, Kentucky, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Vermont, although due to its coloration and tiny size it may be more widespread than verified records indicate. It is possibly extirpated in Kentucky.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT
Southern Twayblade
TwinleafJeffersonia diphylla*
(Native)
Twinleaf, Helmet Pod, Ground Squirrel PeaThe only other species in the genus is J. dubia, an Asian plant. Jeffersonia diphylla is a species native to parts of the United States and Canada. It is endangered or threatened in four states – Iowa, New Jersey, New York, and Georgia. In Georgia it is found only in a small area of Walker County.Twinleaf, Helmet Pod, Ground Squirrel Pea
Venus' Looking-glassTriodanis perfoliata*
(Native)
Venus' Looking Glass, Clasping Bellwort, Clasping Venus' Looking Glass, Roundleaved TriodanisSynonym: Specularia perfoliata. There are 7 species of Triodanis in the United States. T. perfoliata is the most widespread, being found in all states except Alaska, Hawaii, and Nevada, and in much of Canada. T. biflora, a more southern species, is found in 24 of the 50 states, and is not reported in Canada. Texas is the only state where all 7 species of Triodanis are found. This native plant is considered weedy or invasive by some authorities.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Venus' Looking Glass, Clasping Bellwort, Clasping Venus' Looking Glass, Roundleaved Triodanis
VervainVerbena simplex*
(Native)
Narrowleaf Vervain, Simple VerbenaThe range of Narrowleaf Vervain is most of the eastern half of the United States. It is listed as “Special Concern” in Connecticut, and is Endangered in Massachusetts and New Jersey, but is a quite common dry meadow and roadside plant in much of its range. It is the larval host for the Common Buckeye butterfly.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Narrowleaf Vervain, Simple Verbena
VervainVerbena urticifolia*
(Native)
White Vervain, Nettle-leaf VerbenaOne or the other of the two varieties of Verbena urticifolia is found in every state east of the Rocky Mountains, with the exception of possibly Maine, where it is historical but might be extirpated. It can be weedy (to that I can attest personally,) and I personally find it interesting but not especially attractive.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
White Vervain, Nettle-leaf Verbena
VetchCoronilla varia*
(Introduced)
Crown Vetch, Purple Crown Vetch, Axseed, Hive VineCoronilla varia is a synonym for Securigera varia. Similarly to Kudzu, Crown Vetch was introduced into the United States for erosion control. Similarly to Kudzu, it now appears that was a mistake, and it is now present in every state except Alaska and North Dakota. Organizations in many states now consider this plant to be a significant threat to native plants.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Crown Vetch, Purple Crown Vetch, Axseed, Hive Vine
VetchVicia caroliniana*
(Native)
Wood Vetch, Carolina Vetch, Pale VetchWood Vetch is an attractive mid-spring plant found in most of the eastern half of the United States except for New England. It grows up to about 2.5' tall, or you may call it long rather than tall, because as it grows it will sprawl along the ground or climb on other plants. It is endangered in New Jersey.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Wood Vetch, Carolina Vetch, Pale Vetch
Viburnum Viburnum acerifolium*
(Native)
Maple Leaved Viburnum, Mapleleaf Viburnum Mapleleaf Viburnum is a shurb that grows to 6 feet tall. It grows in forests and open woods.

Recent classification changes have moved the genus Viburnum, along with Sambucus, out of the Honeysuckle Family and into the Muskroot Family.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Maple Leaved Viburnum, Mapleleaf Viburnum
ViburnumViburnum dentatum
(Native)
Southern Arrowwood, Arrowwood ViburnumRecent classification changes have moved the genus Viburnum, along with Sambucus, out of the Honeysuckle Family and into the Muskroot Family.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Southern Arrowwood, Arrowwood Viburnum
Violet Viola hastata*
(Native)
Halberdleaf Yellow Violet, Halberd Leaf Yellow VioletThe leaves of Halberleaf Yellow Violet are more or less arrowhead shaped, similar to that of a the working end of a halberd. Halberdleaf Yellow Violet, Halberd Leaf Yellow Violet
Violet Viola sororia*
(Native)
Common Blue VioletCommon Blue Violet, Big Frog Trail, Polk County, TN 05/08/2004Common Blue Violet
Violet Viola canadensis*
(Native)
Canada VioletOne of our mid-spring wildflowers, Canada Violet grows to about 18" tall. Large colonies can carpet areas of open forests with their white blossoms. Canada Violet
VioletViola blanda*
(Native)
Sweet White VioletThis is a small white woodland violet.

Found in:
AL, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Sweet White Violet
VioletViola pedata*
(Native)
Bird's-foot violetBird's-foot or Crow-foot violet has one of the larger, showier blossoms of the wild violets.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Bird's-foot violet
VioletViola rostrata*
(Native)
Long-spurred violetThis is one of our earliest blooming spring violets.

Found in:
AL, CT, GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV)
Long-spurred violet
VioletViola rotundifolia
(Native)
Roundleaf yellow violetOne of several species of yellow violets found in the United States, Viola rotundifolia has ovate to cordate leaves. A key identifier for this species is, according to Wildflowers Of Tennessee, The Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians is that this is the only yellow violet in eastern North America with the flowers and leaves on separate stalks.

Update 03/31/2013:
I now believe this to be an incorrect identification. I (finally!) took a closer look at the yellow violets in a couple of areas of The Pocket, including the area where the photo below was taken 3 years ago, and have found all to be Viola pubescens (or in some cases V. pensylvanica if you subscribe to the separation of those species.) In many cases the stem of the plant was covered in forest detritus, making it appear to be acaulescent, especially to one who didn't know to check closer. I suspect that would be the case with the photo below.

My apologies!
Roundleaf yellow violet
VioletViola palmata*
(Native)
Wood Violet, Early Blue Violet, Trilobed VioletThere seems to be some disagreement as to whether Viola triloba is a separate species or included among varieties of Viola palmata. It seems generally accepted that what was for a time classified as Viola triloba var dilatata is within Viola palmata, and some authorities list Viola triloba var triloba as a synonym of V. palmata var triloba. An exception is the USDA Plants Database, which lists V. palmata as a hybrid of other Violet species.

The distinction (or maybe disagreement) is naturally enough around the form of the leaves, but at the sites with the most recent updates it seems the direction is to roll V. triloba into V. palmata, and I'm inclined to join that crowd. Since I have taken that position (open to discussion!) the states I have for this species is a combination of the distribution listed by the USDA for both Viola triloba and Viola palmata. The map shown to the right is that for V. triloba. The states I am including in my list for V. palmata are these: AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Wood Violet, Early Blue Violet, Trilobed Violet
VioletViola tripartita
(Native)
Three-parted Yellow Violet, Threepart Violet, Wedge-leaf Yellow VioletThere are two varieties of this relatively rare violet - Viola tripartita var. tripartita and Viola tripartita var. glaberrima. It's historical range includes rich, wooded slopes in a dozen of the southeastern United States, as far north as southwestern Pennsylvania, where it is now believed to be extirpated, and southeastern Ohio, where var. tripartita is believed to be extirpated and the remaining population of var. glaberimma is protected with an official status of Endangered. It is also protected in Florida and Tennessee.

Found in:
AL, FL, GA, KY, MD, MS, NC, OH, PA, SC, TN, WV
Three-parted Yellow Violet, Threepart Violet, Wedge-leaf Yellow Violet
VioletViola bicolor*
(Native)
Field Pansy, Wild Pansy, Johnny Jump-upViola bicolor is still considered by some to be a variety of the European Viola kittaibeliana but most authorities now agree that it is a separate species native to the United States. It apparently was more common and originated in the western part of its current range, but due to its weedy nature it has spread eastward, and probably further westward than its original range as well.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WV
Field Pansy, Wild Pansy, Johnny Jump-up
VioletViola purpurea*
(Native)
Goosefoot Violet, Goosefoot Yellow Violet, Mountain VioletViola purpurea is a yellow-flowering violet of western North America, being found in ten western states and in British Columbia, Canada. It is further divided into at least 6 subspecies or varieties, depending on which subclassification method to which you subscribe. The subspecies presented in the photographs here, Viola purpurea ssp. venosa, is the most widely distributed one, missing only from Arizona out of the ten aforementioned states (ssp. mohavensis is the only subspecies found in Arizona; it is also found in California.)

I had previously, incorrectly, identified these photos of Viola purpurea ssp. venosa as Viola praemorsa. Many thanks to Dr. John Little for providing me with the corrected identification.

Found in:
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Goosefoot Violet, Goosefoot Yellow Violet, Mountain Violet
WaterleafHydrophyllum canadense*
(Native)
Broad-leaf Waterleaf ; Bluntleaf Waterleaf, Maple-leaf WaterleafBroad-leaf Waterleaf is a woodland plant which grows from 1 to 2 feet tall, and blossoms in late spring. The maple-leaved plant is similar to H. appendiculatum – Appendaged Waterleaf, but the latter is a distinctly hairy plant, and is not usually found with white blossoms.Broad-leaf Waterleaf ; Bluntleaf Waterleaf, Maple-leaf Waterleaf
WaterleafHydrophyllum capitatum
(Native)
Ballhead Waterleaf, Cat's Breeches, Dwarf WaterleafThe Ballhead Waterleaf is found on moist mountain slopes and woodlands in 9 northwestern states (CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY.) The color seems to be generally bluish at lower elevations getting paler – to white – as the elevation gets higher, although you may find a mix at any altitude. This common, small, attractive plant may be up to about a foot tall.Ballhead Waterleaf, Cat's Breeches, Dwarf Waterleaf
WaterlilyNymphaea odorata
(Native)
American White Water Lily, Fragrant Water Lily, White Water LilyThe American White Water Lily (waterlily) is a beautiful aquatic plant found in most states in the United States.

The species consists of two subspecies, Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata and N. odorata ssp. tuberosa. The latter is usually has somewhat larger flowers, and the petals are somewhat blunter. The more widespread subspecies from which the species takes its epithet has a very sweet fragrance, reported to be missing from ssp. tuberosa. The unscented American White Water Lilies are not found in the west or southeast.
American White Water Lily, Fragrant Water Lily, White Water Lily
WaxweedCuphea viscosissima*
(Native)
Blue Waxweed, Clammy Cuphea, TarweedCuphea viscosissima is native to the eastern United States, and has been introduced into Ontario, Canada. It is lists as a plant of Special Concern in Connecticut.

An oil derived from the seed of this plant (and others in the Cuphea genus) is used in some cosmetics and skin lotions, and its potential is being explored for nutrition and for biofuel.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Blue Waxweed, Clammy Cuphea, Tarweed
Wild PetuniaRuellia caroliniensis*
(Native)
Carolina Wild PetuniaHairy, long-pointed calyx lobes helps identify this wild petunia species. Walker County, 06/07/2009Carolina Wild Petunia
WitchhazelHamamelis virginiana*
(Native)
American WitchhazelThere are two Witchhazel species found in the United States, and two more Asian species. Hamamelis vernalis - Ozark Witchhazel - is found in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri. The species presented here, Hamamelis virginiana, is much more widespread, being found not only in those four states, but also every state east of the Mississippi River and every Mississippi River border state west of the river. It is also found in most of eastern Canada.

This small tree or shrub is unusual in that it blooms in the fall or even early winter rather than in warmer months. The seedpods open explosively, tossing the seeds up to 30 feet from the parent tree. Two years later the seed may germinate, adding to the dense understory Witchhazel helps create in its forest habitat.

Witchhazel has long been used by Native Americans as a medicinal plant for a variety of maladies, and it therefore came into use by the American colonists for similar purposes. It is still used as an astringent made from the leaves and bark, and is used in lotions, washes, ointments, and soaps.

Found in:
AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
American Witchhazel
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Wood PoppyStylophorum diphyllum*
(Native)
Wood Poppy, Celandine PoppyA beautiful, yellow, early spring wildflower.

Found in:
AL, AR, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV
Wood Poppy, Celandine Poppy
Wood SorrelOxalis montana
(Native)
Mountain Wood Sorrel, Northern Wood Sorrel. The "montana" epithet means "mountain". It is not found in the state of Montana. Synonym: Oxalis acetosella

Found in:
CT, GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Mountain Wood Sorrel, Northern Wood Sorrel.
Wood SorrelOxalis violacea*
(Native)
Violet Wood SorrelA low-growing plant of forests and moist prairies, Oxalis violacea is found in much of the eastern United States from New York south.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Violet Wood Sorrel
Wood SorrelOxalis dillenii*
(Native)
Slender Yellow Woodsorrel, Southern Yellow Wood-sorrel, Dillen’s OxalisOxalis dillenii is considered to be a form of Oxalis stricta by many experts. As an example, Flora of Missouri indicates that O. dillenii is a synonym of O. stricta, but ITIS lists as a separate species. Since ITIS considers it to be a separate species and it appears that the few distinguishing characteristics are consistent, I will follow that lead. Hairs are one of the key differentiating characteristics of Oxalis dillenii. It will be evenly strigose (hairs appressed or nearly so) from base to pedicel. Other yellow-flowered Oxalis will be strigose only in the inflorescence, if at all.

Slender Yellow Woodsorrel, O. dillenii, is a weedy plant found in all but five states of the U.S. It is native to much of that range, but introduced several western states. It is also found in parts of Canada; introduced in the western parts of its Canadian range. It commonly grows in yards, roadsides, fields, and other habitats.

Found in:
AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Slender Yellow Woodsorrel, Southern Yellow Wood-sorrel, Dillen’s Oxalis
Woodland-starLithophragma parviflorum
(Native)
Smallflower Woodland-starFound in 11 western states, this small flower grabs attention as you walk the trails due to the lobed petals, giving it a star-like appearance. It is common, found usually at altitudes of close to 5,000 feet and higher.Smallflower Woodland-star
YarrowAchillea millefolium*
(Native)
Common Yarrow, MilfoilWhile this member of the aster family is native to much of the United States, it is an introduced species in Hawaii.

Found in:
AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Common Yarrow, Milfoil
Yellow LoosestrifeLysimachia quadrifolia*
(Native)
Whorled LoosestrifeWhile the species name for this plant implies that there are four leaves in the whorl, there can be 3 to 6 (some reports even 7.) This specimen found on Big Frog Trail near the trailhead in Polk County, TN has 5 leaves per whorl at the upper nodes, and 6 leaves in the lowest one photographed. The plant is generally 1 to 3 feet tall.

Found in:
AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Whorled Loosestrife
Yellow LoosestrifeLysimachia tonsa*
(Native)
Appalachian Loosestrife, Southern Yellow Loosestrife, Southern LoosestrifeLysimachia is made up of about 180 species worldwide, with about 20 in North America. Although there is at least one Lysimachia in each of the 50 states, most of the North American Yellow Loosestrifes are exclusively in the eastern half of the continent, and L. tonsa fits into that profile, being found only in a few states in the southeastern U.S. While the USDA Plants Database map (and BONAP) don’t show this species in either state, there are some publications that indicate that it is found, or at least has been found in the past, in both Texas and Arkansas. It is classified as Rare in North Carolina.

Lysimachia tonsa has been classified as Lysimachia ciliata Linnaeus var. tonsa in the past, and it is quite similar. The most obvious difference between L. tonsa (Southern Yellow Loosestrife) and L. ciliata (Fringed Loosestrife,) which shares similar habitat within the much smaller range of L. tonsa, are the distinctly hairy petioles of L. ciliata. L. tonsa has petioles which may be hairy only near the stem.

Found in:
AL, AR, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Appalachian Loosestrife, Southern Yellow Loosestrife, Southern Loosestrife

Updated 12/12/2013